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Argumentative Essay: Video games, beneficial or detrimental? Extracts from this document. Video Games Beneficial or Hazardous Video games have been a growing phenomenon since the stress mid 1980's. Can You Ask Questions In Research! With the vast improvements in technology the ways essay video gaming industry had evolved from sign business plan, simple two dimensional games to realist, fast paced, life like experiences. Along with it's growth there has been an ongoing discussion of whether video games are beneficial or hazardous to children and adolescents. Some are of the view that video games are indeed hazardous because they are meaningless times wasters that encourage anti-social behavior, have a negative impact of the health of children, and because they are filled with violent content.
However, I do not share these views. In my opinion video games are a wonder pastime which has the potential to be very beneficial on many levels. Many believe that video games are a useless form of entertainment that is in no way beneficial, therefore it is considered a waste of essay time. However, video games are a real brain workout that invokes abstract and high level thinking. . read more. Video games are goal-driven experiences, which are fundamental to learning. (106) Some people feel that children spend too much time playing games and as a result they become socially isolated, which affects the time spent doing home work, other physical activities and interacting with family and friends. While playing video games can be time consuming, it does in fact promote social activity and teamwork. Video games allow parents and their kids to play together and can be used as a bonding activity. Many games appeal to that for you answers both kids and ways stress adults and could be something they both share in common. Children also build friendships through playing games that both they and their friends enjoy. Also games that involve multiple players encourage children to work cooperatively to achieve a common goal.
They learn to listen to the ideas of others, formulate plans and distribute various tasks based on the skills of each other. Online games are played internationally, which can introduce kids to players of thesis different nationalities, and exposed them to ways essay many cultures and fosters friendships. . read more. Introduction American Essay! Violent games act as a positive way for children to ways stress vent their frustration and anger in the games with computerized characters, which often relieves stress. Video games provide a positive aggression outlet the same way playing football, hockey or any other contact sport would. It should be evident that the views held degrading the use of ayn rand video games hold little if any merit. The argument that video games consume too much time and are violent hold little weight, because parents can impose a time limit of how long games can be played, and in the same manner parents choose which television shows are suitable, they can choose which video games are appropriate for their children to ways to manage stress play.
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How to create your focused, relevant CV. Three sections makes it easy and clear for ways to manage stress the reader. EDUCATION: normally at website essays yahoo the top (especially for recent graduates entering the to manage stress, jobs market for the first time). Include awards under each relevant education section, for example, grant awards for a DPhil, school prizes, undergraduate prizes or high rankings (‘2nd in year’) EXPERIENCE (rather than “Employment”): this can include voluntary work, student society roles, internships, paid work etc INTERESTS or COMMUNITY ACTIVITY AND SKILLS should be included to indicate extra, diverse talents. Within this section, you might use sub-categories such as IT Skills (but only if they are specialist or unusual); Languages; Music; Sports etc. Remember that the CV is to customer relationship marketing thesis get you the meeting or interview only, so don’t feel you have to include every last detail – leave them wanting to learn more about you. Specific things to leave out ways to manage stress, include: The words ‘Curriculum Vitae’ or ‘CV’ Date of birth and essay / or age Marital status, disability, children, partner, sexual preferences, sex, racial background, religion Home address Nationality – unless you want to show that you do have the Right to Work in the country in question Referees – this takes up space, they’ll assume you have them, there are probably other opportunities to record these details Basic IT skills: these days everyone can use the internet, word processing, spreadsheets etc to a competent level – but do include any super-advanced qualifications in MS Office and ways stress essay of course any specialist software like C++, SPSS etc Areas of potential, personal contention, e.g. religious beliefs, political affiliation (though if you’ve worked for relationship marketing a political organisation this will obviously be mentioned under work experience) Soft interests such as ‘socialising with friends, cooking, reading, cinema’.
If you do have deep and ways specialist interest in one of these, then give more details: ‘French films of ayn rand novels essay 1940-1960’ Aim to create powerful bullet points, with each bullet focused on ways to manage stress essay a single idea. Consider applying the ‘CAR’ mnemonic. Context : the in research, organisation name, your job title and dates is often sufficient. Ways? Action Words that demonstrate you took responsibility are useful for starting the bullet point, to highlight skills used – e.g. analysed, created, recommended, managed or led. See our list of action words on our Demonstrate You Fit the Job Criteria page for more. Results can often be linked within an individual bullet point. The traditional – or ‘reverse chronological’ – CV is the most commonly used format. It often lists your education, experience and additional activities – with your most recent achievements first. The sections of the traditional CV will normally be as follows:
Personal information – such as contact details – but NOT date of marketing birth, sex, marital status etc. Ways To Manage Stress? Space may mean you should just list one contact detail, e.g. Oxford email address (not XYZ@fluffybunny.com), and your mobile number Education Experience – the core of shop plan your CV Additional skills Interests. This format makes it easy for employers to spot relevant information fast and gives a complete picture of a candidate in to manage essay a clear and structured way. Remember, however, that you can alter the titles to can you suit the application you are making. For example, you could use the heading “Teaching Experience” instead of “Experience” if you are applying for a teaching job. To Manage Stress Essay? Even if you don’t have much paid work experience, you can include voluntary work or contributions you have made to clubs or societies (inside or outside Oxford).
In a skills-based CV, the information is arranged to highlight relevant skills, with details presented under different skills categories. A concise summary of can you in research your work history normally precedes or follows your relevant skills section, to provide context. This type of CV is used to highlight the transferability of your skills, and so is useful if you are applying to a role without direct experience. Ways Stress Essay? We generally only recommend using this style if you have great experience, as a considerable amount of can you ask questions in research evidence is ways to manage essay required to make the introduction dream essay, skills sound meaningful. As such, it is normally used by: people changing career direction people transitioning from academia into industry or other sectors. However, a similar style may be useful if you are applying to your first ever piece of work experience and have had few positions of ways to manage stress essay responsibility, as it allows you to ggreal thesis abstracts on budgeting emphasise transferable skills you have gained from studying at ways to manage stress essay Oxford. If you are heading to on budgeting north America, then you might need a resume rather than a CV. They are very similar documents so use our CV guide, and supplement it with the information here to build a great CV into a great resume. Default page size – A4 (21cm x 29.7cm) is replaced by Letter (21.59cm x 27.94cm) Use ‘Page Layout’ options in Word (or equivalent) to change the size of your document page Cut down a piece of A3 paper to to manage size when checking out how it prints. Spelling – insure / ensure the resume is oriented / orientated to the readers’ spelling conventions:
Set your default language to US or Canadian English to use your spelling and grammar check Watch out for common ‘Britishisms’ such as ‘analysed’ and ‘organised’ (both have a ‘z’ in North America) See Wikipedia’s page on spelling differences. Include a cover letter with a resume, unless you are told otherwise Write a considered and ayn rand thoughtful thank you letter within 48 hours of any interview Convert your resume and cover letter into ways to manage PDFs before sending them to an employer. The academic CV is very different from a CV used for ayn rand novels non-academic job applications. It focuses purely on your academic achievements and experience, and there is no page limit – although you should always keep it concise and relevant. First, look at the skills and competencies that the hiring department / research group requires. You can identify these from the person specification, the ways essay, job advert, or your own research.
Is this a research or teaching only thesis job? Or will you be doing research, teaching and administration (typical for ways to manage lectureships)? Do they highlight any particular skill areas, such as organisation or team work? Look at customer thesis what you need to do to essay apply. CVs are usually accompanied by cover letters, but they might also ask you to that essays answers submit an application form, research and/or teaching statement.
Once you are clear what the stress, employer wants, start to tailor your CV to the post. The following sections are typical for the academic CV: Personal Information . Start the shop plan, CV with your name, address, telephone number and email address. Research Interests . Write bullet points or a short paragraph summarising your research. Education . Include degrees, possibly titles of theses, and the names of ways supervisors. Website Yahoo? Awards and Funding . Ways Stress Essay? Include undergraduate/postgraduate prizes, travel grants, doctoral scholarships, early career fellowships, and grants you have led on or are named on. Research Experience . Ayn Rand Essay Contest? Include any post docs or fellowships and research assistant jobs. You might include more detail about your doctoral research in this section too. Teaching Experience . Note any lecturing, seminar, tutorial, supervising, demonstrating, mentoring experience, and ways to manage stress potentially non-academic teaching.
Give details about the role and responsibilities – even if it was informal – such as level of novels essay students, class sizes and topics you taught. Ways To Manage Essay? Admin Experience . Highlight any conferences/seminars/reading groups you’ve organised, committees you have sat upon, and any other relevant administration experience. Relevant Training . Include academic teaching training, research methods training etc. Ayn Rand Essay? Relevant research/technical/laboratory skills . You may find it useful to ways to manage essay list these under one heading if you find yourself repeating throughout various sections. Patents . Give details of the title, inventors, patent number and date granted. Sign Shop Business? Professional memberships. List these – e.g. the Royal Society of Chemistry or the British Association of American Studies. Include dates. Publications . Give full details as you would if citing them, and use a consistent style.
You may wish to highlight (e.g. bold/underline) your name. Conference presentations and posters . Highlight whether paper or poster and cite similarly to your publications with full author list, title, date and ways stress essay location. Referees . Ideally these should all be academic referees. They should be people who know you well and who are known in relationship thesis your field. Make sure the CV is focused on academia.
Only include non-academic work experience or extra-curricular activities and interests if you feel they are very relevant to the post you are applying for. You might include languages and IT skills if they are relevant. You might include your nationality in your personal details if you think it will be an advantage – e.g. Ways? so that they know you are a European citizen and introduction dream have the right to work in the UK. If you have limited or no published work, consider including works in to manage stress progress. Clearly label publications as ‘forthcoming’, ‘under review’ or ‘submitted’ if they are in ayn rand novels essay process, but not yet in print or accepted. If you are unconcerned about ways to manage stress, giving your ideas away before they go to a publisher, you could have a separate heading for ‘Working Papers’ that you are preparing for publication but have not submitted yet. Novels Essay? Include when and where you plan to submit them. If you have been invited to give seminars or conference papers, highlight under a separate heading.
Translate jargon/acronyms that others might not understand, especially if applying abroad. Make sure you read the ways stress, “Top Tips” in “Standard CVs”, above, which are relevant to Academic CVs as well. Does your name stand out? (Write it at the top – no need to say “Curriculum Vitae”) Can you be easily contacted using the information you’ve given? Are there particularly relevant courses/projects/extended essays you could mention? Are A-levels and GCSEs summarised on one or two lines each? Have you given an indication of the equivalence or grading system of any non-UK qualifications? Are section headings tailored to the recipient? (e.g. Teaching Experience, Voluntary Work, etc.) Have you included greater detail on more relevant experience?
Have you tailored your achievements and skills to the job? Are your sentences punchy and concise? Have you followed the ggreal thesis abstracts on budgeting, advice in our page on demonstrating you fit the essay, job criteria? Is it clear what level of attainment you have in languages, IT, etc.? Are you able to ayn rand essay use this section as another opportunity to demonstrate required competencies? Have you indicated your level of stress essay commitment? Is this section headed “referees” and not “references”?
If you are giving contact details – have you asked your referees’ permission? Does the section take up too much space? If so, put their details on a single line – for example: Dr M. Misra, Keble College, Oxford, OX1 1AB, firstname.lastname@example.org, 01865 377778. Does it look attractive at first glance? Would you want to read it?
Would an sign shop business plan employer want to read it? Does it fit on to one or two full pages? Has it been checked for accurate and consistent grammar and spelling? Many recruiters will dismiss even the most qualified candidate if there is even one typo in the CV, cover letter or application form. Are fonts (type and size) consistent and not too small (11pt minimum)?
Is the layout well balanced, with effective use of to manage stress essay space, using the full width of the page? Broadly speaking, does the most relevant information occupy the most space? Are dates reverse chronological if you are using this type of format? Have you quantified your achievements? Have you checked for gaps in your history? We recommend you explain any significant time gaps in sign plan your CV. There is ways no right or wrong way of presenting your personal circumstances. You may have been travelling, working on ayn rand novels contest an independent project (e.g. writing), been ill, or caring for others. If it helps, speak with a Careers Adviser to identify the most effective way for you to present your circumstances on stress essay a CV and/or cover letter as this will differ with each individual. Hold your CV at arms-length – does it look easy to read?
Fold it vertically and scan the essays yahoo, left side in 3 seconds. – Will the reader get the gist of your application? – Are your strongest responsibilities and achievements immediately visible? Check for jargon and acronyms, and over-long bullets – edit vigorously Is it the ways to manage, right length? – Some employers ( e.g. investment banks) expect just one page, so check beforehand.
– Aim for shop business plan a maximum of two pages, except for an academic CV Save your CV as a PDF to ensure it keeps its beautiful formatting Finally, finally , take a break and then proofread – yes, again! Double check for typos and errors. Then send it off! It can take a number of revisions before you are happy with your CV, and stress getting independent advice can prove very helpful: it might all make perfect sense to you, but you could be surprised by the things that others may question or not understand. Make an appointment and ask for feedback from plan, a Careers Adviser.
For sector specific advice about how to tailor your CV please refer to ways to manage our sector information. Putting Together the ayn rand essay, Perfect Consulting CV – information sheet Careers Beyond Profit – How to ways stress essay Write a Winning CV – presentation slides CVs: A Brief Introduction – presentation slides. Our Resource Centre has a number of files and books on CV writing that you may find useful. The Careers Service subscribes to abstracts GoinGlobal on behalf of Oxford students. It features around 40 country guides. You can get advice on ways to manage stress essay your CV from any of website that writes essays for you answers our Careers Advisers by booking an advice appointment. Most of our careers fairs also have CV Clinics, to get advice from recruiters. Prospects: CV Writing – has sample CVs, sample covering letters, and to manage stress tips on what to include TARGETjobs: Applications and CV Advice Academic CVs: 10 Irritating Mistakes – a Guardian article, 2013 Vitae: Researcher CVs: A specialist resource for the professional development of researchers, including many example CVs for careers inside and outside academia Vitae: Academic CVs: Information specifically on academic CV writing jobs.ac.uk – more information on academic CVs.
Everything You Need to Know about Careers in introduction essay Banking Consulting! In collaboration with student societies at Oxford, The Careers Service is hosting two key events ahead of the onslaught of employer presentations, workshops and fairs to to manage help you navigate careers in ‘the city’. On Tuesday 10 October we’ll be hosting ‘Careers in ggreal abstracts Consulting: Everything You Need to Know’ from 14.00 to 16.30 at Exams Schools. Hear from 3 very different firms (Strategy, Oliver Wyman and CIL Consulting) to learn what a week in the life of a consultant is like and gain key advice to stress be on top of your game for competitive applications. Then on Wednesday 11 October from 14.00 to 16.30 at Exams Schools join us for ‘Careers in Banking: Everything You Need to Know’ where you’ll hear from a range of firms including HSBC, BNY Mellon, Jefferies and Schroders. They will be giving vital tips on how to introduction american dream essay find your dream job in ways to manage stress finance and illustrating what their day-to-day roles involve. These events are being closely supported by a number of Oxford societies including the Finance Society, the shop business, Oxford Student Foundation and The Oxford Strategy Group. No need to ways stress essay book, spaces are allocated on a ‘first-come, first served’ basis. Career Workshops for Researchers in Michaelmas. Positive steps in career development come from writes essays for you yahoo answers, meeting others and learning. Researchers at Oxford can come to to manage stress essay any of our events, but we also have bespoke opportunities for research Masters students, Research Assistants, DPhils and writes Post-Docs.
These are listed below for Michaelmas Term. Also look out for stress Careers Days, invited speakers and skills sessions run by papers, your department, division or post-doc network. For appointments with Rachel Bray or another Careers Adviser of to manage your choice at the Careers Service on Banbury Road, please book through CareerConnect. Rachel Bray also offers regular appointments for scientists at the JR and Old Road Campus, bookable by phoning reception on 01865 274646. Bookings for can you ask questions in research papers workshops/events should be through CareerConnect and if you have any queries please email email@example.com. For: Research Assistants and Masters Students When: Thursday 5 October, 9.00 – 12.30 Where: The Careers Service Booking: This event must be booked.
To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. In this workshop we will look closely at the value of doing a doctorate in today’s employment market and for ways to manage ourselves as people. We will consider our personal motivations for novels essay this route, the challenges we may need to overcome to secure a place and how to thrive as a PhD student. There will also be opportunity to ways to manage reflect on alternative pathways towards professional satisfaction. Pointers towards further advice and support available here at Oxford and more broadly will be given. This event must be booked. Relationship? To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Alternatively, book a place at our lunchtime seminar on this topic on Monday 23 October. Career Management for Research Staff and DPhils.
Looking to manage your career more effectively? This workshop has been designed specifically for University Research Staff at ways essay all levels and at any stage in their career, who want to step back and spend a few productive hours focusing on identifying their ideal job and future possible career paths within, or beyond, academia. An interactive mix of introduction american dream essay short individual exercises and to manage small informal group discussions will help you to build a clearer picture of the key factors relating to your career and personal circumstances and to explore career pathways. The session will cover: reflections on where your career is right now; creating your ideal job; job satisfaction and career motivations; identifying your values and ggreal thesis transferable skills; how to identify possible career pathways and move forward effectively. You will be encouraged to to manage stress essay draw your insights together to begin a realistic personal career plan and to consider your next steps. Researchers@ Oxford Careers Fair. Research students and staff planning to attend this fair are invited to book this pre-fair event. Can You Ask Questions In Research Papers? Depending on ways essay the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to website essays yahoo answers get the most out of the fair.
Further information on the fair can be found on stress essay the Oxford Careers Fair page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Researchers@ Finance Careers Fair. When: Tuesday 17 October, 13.30 – 14.30 Where: Lecture Room 2, Christ Church College (then to Fair in Town Hall) Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Research students and staff planning to attend this fair are invited to book this pre-fair event. Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. Can You? The fair booklet for ways essay this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Researchers@ Management Consulting Careers Fair. When: Wednesday 18 October, 13.30 – 14.30 Where: Lecture Room 2, Christ Church College (then to Fair in Town Hall) Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page.
The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Kickstart for Research Staff and their Partners/Newcomers. When: Friday 20 October, 13.00 – 16.00 Where: Careers Service Booking: To reserve a place Researchers should book through CareerConnect. Partners of newcomers should call Careers Service reception on 01865 274646. A special careers workshop for website essays for you those looking to return to work after a long career gap or for a new direction, whether through re-location, other circumstances or choice. We will cover job search strategies, document optimisation, networking and interview technique but we will also be exploring ideas and case studies on how to get into to manage stress essay the market and freshen up your skills and CV. Even if you are a few years from getting back to work, come along! There are things you can be doing now to make that transition much easier when it comes. Open to anyone considering applying for a PhD. In this session we’ll cover the customer relationship marketing, steps you might take to discover whether a PhD is the to manage, right course of action for you, and discuss how to sign shop choose the best institution and programme for ways you.
We’ll also briefly talk about the customer, application process and funding. Researchers@ Careers in Computing Fair. When: Tuesday 24th October, 14.00 – 15.00 Where: Department of Computer Science, Robert Hooke Building Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Research students and staff planning to attend the above fairs are invited to book at the relevant pre-fair event. Depending on ways to manage stress the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to ayn rand discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out ways essay, of the website essays yahoo answers, fair.
Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. Ways? The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the ayn rand contest, event. Researchers@ Arts, Media and Marketing Careers Fair. Research students and staff planning to attend the above fairs are invited to book at the relevant pre-fair event. Depending on ways the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to customer relationship thesis discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and stress essay networking, or strategies to contest get the most out stress, of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Researchers@ Science, Engineering and Technology Careers Fair. Research students and staff planning to attend the business plan, above fairs are invited to essay book at the relevant pre-fair event.
Depending on the number of ask questions bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Researchers@ Teaching and Education Fair. Research students and staff planning to attend the above fairs are invited to book at the relevant pre-fair event. Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and ways to manage essay networking, or strategies to get the website for you yahoo, most out ways to manage stress, of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on sign shop business plan our Fairs page. Ways Essay? The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Researchers@ Internship Fair. Research students and staff planning to attend the above fairs are invited to book at essay contest the relevant pre-fair event.
Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the to manage stress, most out of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. CV and Cover Letter Skills for Research Staff. This intensive workshop on producing effective CVs and Cover Letters is specifically for doctoral students and research staff, whether you are considering an academic or non-academic career, or are undecided. Using a mix of individual and informal small group exercises, we will. understand and recognise the ggreal on budgeting, characteristics of effective CVs and cover letters critique the strengths and weaknesses of ways stress essay their own and customer marketing colleagues’ current CVs evaluate example CVs and cover letters to build their knowledge of different types and to manage essay styles. Insight into sign business Academia Seminar: Myths and Realities Panel.
When: Tuesday 7 November, 13.00 – 14.00 Where: Careers Service Booking: You do not need to book a place at this event but popular events may fill early so arrive in good time. Are you considering an academic career? We will hear from a small panel of early- to mid-career academics about their day-to-day roles, how they manage a work-life balance, and opportunities for to manage stress essay progression. Can You In Research? This is a chance to ask questions and generate discussion on many aspects of being an academic. Academic Application and essay Interview Skills for writes essays for you answers Research Staff and DPhils. Are you a DPhil Student or Research Staff member planning to apply for academic jobs? Do you want advice on how to ways to manage stress essay prepare academic applications and to relationship marketing thesis improve your interview skills? This workshop, designed specifically for University of Oxford researchers pursuing academic applications, is for you. This interactive course will equip you with the skills to maximise your chances of getting academic employment. Emphasis will be given to ways to manage essay understanding the american essay, processes which universities use to select staff and the importance of tailoring CVs, applications, research and teaching statements accordingly. We will discuss and to manage practice the skills required for effective performance at interview; preparation, self-presentation and how to deal with typical academic interview questions.
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Dr Rachel Bray, Careers Adviser, will be available for half an hour after the talk to discuss any questions that arise. Further information on the fair can be found on essay our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the ways to manage stress, event. Interview Presentation Skills for Research Staff and customer marketing thesis DPhils. New job or direction in mind? Do you want to brush up on ways essay the practicalities of preparing for interviews and presentations? This workshop, designed for University Research Staff and final year DPhils, is for you.
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Career Transitions for Researchers. In this workshop we will explore our understanding of the pros and cons of staying in academic research, whether and how we can move to another sector (or combine aspects of academia with another role) and what we feel we might be risking in making this move. In small groups, we will then. become familiar with an evidence-informed framework for assessing a potential career move, think about how to use this in our current roles, develop some practical strategies to assist decision-making. This one day workshop, for DPhil students and research staff who identify themselves as female, is an opportunity for you to explore your values, create tangible goals, practice presenting your achievements positively and build assertiveness and networking strategies. There will also be a guest speaker who will share their work / life story and answer any questions you have. Coffee and tea will be available from 9am and the workshop will start promptly at 9.30am. Ways To Manage Stress Essay? Lunch will be included. This programme is just for women, but note that we plan to abstracts run a mixed programme in ways Trinity Term for shop business a mixed group of men and women. Tier 1 Graduate Entrepreneur Visa Endorsement – apply now!
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Straight Skinny Epitaph: Oscar Niemayer, Stalinist, Architect of ways to manage stress essay Brasilia, 1909-2012. Saul Friedlander has famously defined death kitsch as the customer relationship marketing thesis bedrock of Nazi aesthetics, an effectively staged transfiguration by fire and klieg lights like the Gotterdamerung of Wagner’s imagining brought into life by Hitler, who was excited by fire and blood. To Manage? Of death kitsch , Friedlander writes: I t as often been said that one of the characteristics of ayn rand novels essay kitsch is precisely the neutralization of “extreme situations,” particularly death, by turning them into some sentimental idyll. To Manage Stress Essay? This is undoubtedly true at the level of kitsch production, hardly so at the level of individual experience, when one has to imagine or face death. As I have just mentioned, whatever the kitsch images surrounding one, death creates an authentic feeling of loneliness and website dread. Basically, at the level of individual experience, kitsch and death remain incompatible. Ways To Manage? The juxtaposition of these two contradictory elements represents the foundation of website that writes essays yahoo answers a certain religious aesthetic, and, in my opinion, the bedrock of Nazi aesthetics as well as the ways stress essay new evocation of Nazism. — Reflections of Nazism: An Essay on Kitsch and Death , 27.
Though Friedlander does not say so, I have often thought the apex of death kitsch was the human skin lampshade on the human bone lamp base sported by the commandant of Buchenwald. This banalization of website that writes essays yahoo evil is at the heart of the popular support fascism seeks and finds. Oscar Niemeyer, the Brazilian architect who has died, aged 104, is arguably the avatar of the kind of ways to manage stress sex kitsch widely practiced in Hitler’s, Mussolini’s, and introduction american essay Franco’s fascist aesthetic, as well as in the machismo aesthetic practiced by their brothers in Communism and ways stress Latin American caudillo culture. The little known, but essential criticism of Brasilia, the planned city Niemeyer, a lifelong Communist, started to design in 1957 is that no workers’ housing was built in the peoples’ Utopia then, or now. Relationship? The planned city is surrounded by 60-year-old favelas and a proud and lively off-grid candango culture of to manage essay three generations of the brown people who built the introduction dream deserted central city. In this walkable neighborhood of low brick buildings, sidewalks, stores, bars and essay brothels, the Cudade Livre , did Niemeyer and his colleagues themselves disport when building the antiseptic city beautiful. “We would sit in a club,” he writes, “and happily watch the social mixing taking place in this forsaken backwater.
The liquor flowed while our colleagues — the architects, engineers and that writes construction workers — danced together around the wooden-plank floor.There was a mood of nostalgia for home and ways essay the distant places where these men had come fromto work together in Brasilia” (Niemeyer, 72). The modernist architect Oscar Niemeyer, 1904-2012, who built an urban theory for Brazil based on his Stalinist, and not Marxist, principles. He arguably built Brasilia, the planned city which is the abstracts on budgeting capital of Brazil, according to fascist, and not communitarian, aesthetics. The outstanding work of 20th century Marxists — Walter Benjamin, Mike Davis and to manage Marshall Berman — has been to establish, persuasively, that cities — if not the revolution itself — are for pedestrians, that modernity itself exists in the revolutionary mix of classes, sexes, genders, and races on introduction essay, the sidewalks of the metropolis. Berman defines.
….modernism as any attempt by modern men and women to become subjects as well as objects of modernization, to get a grip on ways essay, the modern world and make themselves at home in it. This is a broader and more inclusive idea of modernism than those generally found in scholarly books. It implies an open and expansive way of ayn rand contest understanding culture; very different from the curatorial approach that breaks up human activity into essay, fragments and locks the fragments into cases, labeled by time,place, language, genre and academic discipline. I’ve been chewing over Berman, the great Marxist humanist who is the urban theorist of the customer marketing thesis Bronx destroyed by Robert Moses’ expressway, of the skanky old Times Square Disneyfied by Giuliani, and the godfather of post-modern Marx studies in to manage stress essay, America, since I first read All That Is Solid Melts Into Air in the 1980s. Opening its now yellow-edged pages, I find an essay on Niemeyer, heavily highlighted by a forgotten me in pink — what else? — Berman fulminating on the soullessness of Brasilia. Like an in research papers old friend, it is a manifesto I had entirely forgotten.
Marshall Berman, of CCNY and CUNY, America’s leading Marxist scholar. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marshall_Berman. Berman went to Brazil in 1987 to discuss his great book on urban theory, quoted above. Everywhere he went — including Brasilia — Brazilians told him that planned city, designed after Le Corbusier by Lucio Costa and Niemeyer, had nothing in it for them. Today, they call Brasilia fantasy island — “ilha da fantasia” . Berman writes. …one’s overall feeling — confirmed by every Brazilian I met — is of immense empty spaces in which the individual feels lost, as alone as a man on the moon. There is a deliberate lack of public space in which people can meet and talk, or simply look at each other and hang around. The great tradition of Latin urbanism, in which city life is organized around a plaza mayor, is ways to manage stress explicitly rejected. And here Berman defined the clash of dream modernisms, if not precisely the fascist hand of sex kitsch , the anomaly for which Niemeyer and Brasilia must forever stand: Brasilia’s design might have made perfect sense for ways to manage stress essay the capital of a military dictatorship, ruled by generals who wanted people kept at thesis abstracts a distance, kept apart and ways to manage kept down.
As the capital of papers a democracy, however, it is a scandal. Ways Essay? If Brazil is going to stay democratic, I argued in public discussions….it needs democratic public space ion whcih people can come and assemble freely from all over relationship marketing the country, to talk to each other and address their government — because, in a democracy, it is ways to manage stress after all their government — and debate their needs and desires, and ayn rand novels contest communicate their will. Niemeyer himself was appalled, and ways stress sputtered that Brasilia represented the hopes of the people of Brazil and in research any attack on its architecture or design was an attack on the people of Brazil. Stress Essay? Like a good dialectician, Berman synthesized this antithesis to his thesis and decided that of course the people of Brazil desired modernity, but that the modernity Niemeyer and Costa had laid on them in the design of Brasilia was the sterile, techno engineered reality based on classical forms. He does not explore its connection, through the ggreal abstracts on budgeting Brazilians’ co-optation of Le Corbusier’s city planning, to stress essay, the tradition of proscriptive, coercive, explicitly imperialistic, French colonial urbanism directly inherited by and subsumed by Le Corbusier. Website That? This French modernism — partly based in rational, explicitly racist and sexist French urban theory of the late 19th century entailing crowd control, according to the foremost scholar of French planned cities — was intended to perfect and complete the urban organism such that it might expand, in a clone-like fashion, but it would never change.
The city of Niemeyer was perfect and complete; indeed in his 2000 memoir he says the city’s modernism represented “the importance of our country” (Niemeyer, 72). “Niemeyer should have known,” writes Berman, “that a modernist work which deprived people of some of the basic modern prerogatives — to speak, to assemble, to argue, to communicate their needs — would be bound to make numerous enemies.” Those alienated from the sterile spaces of Brasilia would equally be alienated by the lack of sidewalks in America’s suburban developments and would, Berman wrote, in the ’60s and ’70s, begin to develop the alternate modernism “that would assert the presence and the dignity of all the ways to manage people who had been left out.” There’s a reason the ayn rand novels essay contest Mad Ave euphemism for the world-wide dominance of ways to manage African-American culture — which, arguably, arose from hip-hop’s birth in ayn rand novels essay, the very south Bronx wilderness created by Moses’ murderous highway — is “urban”. It doesn’t take a village. It takes a sidewalk . Indeed the riposte of to manage Niemeyer — who joined the Brazilian Communist Party in the mid-1940s (Niemeyer, 46) — to Berman is found throughout Niemeyer’s autobiography. Website That Essays For You? Echoes of his argument surface in the nationalist defense of Brasilia’s architecture all over stress essay the internet. On Budgeting? This seemingly anodyne description of Brasilia’s charm is also its manifesto as a fascist city. Two professors and essay eight graduate students travelled to Brasilia in 2007 to take it in. The professors’ account is a retort to Berman, whose idea that Latin American urban space is american dream essay a grid organized around a plaza is to manage stress essay taken as an insult to Brazil’s much more organic Portuguese heritage.* Fernando Lara, a Brazilian architect and introduction american dream professor of Latin American urbanism, writes: …its system of roads is efficient and rarely congested. In fact, it is a shining success when compared to many other highway-driven cities, such as Los Angeles. Brasilia’s success in this regard reveals a troubling assumption made by its critics, one that goes to essay, the heart of western expectations of a Latin American city. For planners in the United States and Northern Europe, Latin American cities are understood as gridded cities, with a central plaza and streets filled with people selling their wares or enjoying outdoor cafes.
However, many of these images are based on the evolution of urban planning in Spanish-speaking cities in Latin America. Customer? Portugal and its colonial settlements in Brazil never followed this type of urban development. Portuguese and Brazilian cities rarely had central plazas or gridded streets. Instead, planning tended to ways to manage essay, be organic, following access to ports, with the population centers hugging the website for you yahoo answers coasts. Hence, to criticize Brasilia for not having central plazas filled with local inhabitants and ways essay streets filled with more pedestrians than cars, is to website writes essays for you yahoo answers, ignore Brazilian urban planning history and to level unfair expectations. This geographic imbalance also relates to the criticism of monumental public spaces in Brasilia. These heavenly iconic spaces are not bustling with people like in stress, the Zocalo in Mexico City, or the Huaycaypata in Cuzco, Peru.
Instead, the introduction dream essay major public spaces in Brasilia serve as expansive places to showcase iconic buildings. They are not meant to be inhabited by crowds, but to be seen through car windows by those driving by, or by small groups of people who have arrived with the sole purpose to view the architectural monuments to ways to manage stress essay, Brazil’s future, much as one stands to view an artwork in a museum. Fernando Lara, Brazilian architect and can you historian of essay Latin American urbanism, UT, Austin. Lara’s throwaway lines — that Portuguese colonial “planning tended to yahoo answers, be organic”, that public space serves “to showcase iconic buildings” to ways to manage stress, be viewed from a passing car — are the central arguments that Brasilia is an ayn rand novels anti-democratic, and in to manage essay, Berman’s rubric, an anti-Marxist, space. I suspect that Niemeyer’s sex kitsch buildings, set off in Costa/Corbu’s forbidding driveby spaces, make it a fascist space. The widely-discussed effectiveness of introduction fascist architecture depends on spectacle, creating a space in which architecture — or light effects, such as the iconic pillars of ways stress essay light at the Nuremberg Rally — transfigures, in can you ask questions, a raptus-like emotional transaction, individual spectators into one. One strategy is dwarfing spectators, another applying the scientific principles of crowd control first invented by the French to to manage stress essay, contain the shop plan frightening crowds of women who emerged in the late 19th century on stress essay, the newly-created sidewalks of Haussmann’s Paris to ggreal thesis, go shopping at the newly-invented department stores. (This social phenomenon of modernity, as Berman calls it, is piercingly rendered by the magnificent social observer Zola in his 1883 novel, The Ladies’ Paradise.) Later the French built cities in Morocco, Madagascar and stress essay Indochina deploying these anti-democratic architectural strategies. This corsage pin by Lalique was chosen as the logo for a National Gallery exhibit of Art Nouveau.
Depicting women as a pestilence was the explicit result of the fear of crowds of shop business women unleashed by the creation of sidewalks in Paris and the invention of department stores. In a 1975 essay, Fascinating Fascism, culture critic Susan Sontag pinpointed the erotic nature of fascist aesthetics — “vivid encounters of beautiful male bodies and death”. In it, Sontag posits the fascist aesthetic checklist. So powerfully does it resonate with Umberto Eco’s signs of fascism, written 20 years later, Sontag’s still stands as the best practices definition of essay fascist aesthetics: — celebration of the primitive. — preoccupation with situations of control, submissive behavior, extravagant effort. — exaltation of egomania and servitude, domination and enslavement. — pageantry of sign shop business massed groups, turning of people into things, the massed groups of people and things arranged around a leader or force [or iconic, monumental architecture] — orgiastic transactions between mighty forces and their puppets. — virile posing vs. ceaseless motion in choreography. — glamorizes surrender, mindlessness, death. One becomes, as Berman establishes, in the spectator crowd fascism turns us into, the subject as well as the object of a modernism.
I’m cutting to the chase here of many important distinctions: one becomes the subject of stress essay fascist modernity if fascism is, as the ayn rand essay seminal 20th century Marxists argue, the inevitable antithesis to the thesis of revolutionary modernism. Ways To Manage Stress Essay? Fascism is modernity, no matter how many cults of tradition — Kinder, Kuche, Kirche — it exploits. Sign Business? No one has done the work of synthesizing Marxist and fascist aesthetics of spectacle, though the ground work in fascist spectacle has been persuasively established by such scholars as Simonetta Falasca-Zamponi, who describes the anomaly of ways to manage essay Mussolini’s own modernism in the exploitation of modern advertising and polemic sales strategies, media and technology, while adding an acrylic techno sheen to the powerfully transfiguring pre-modern strategies of imperial sized buildings, ritual, symbols, tradition, and the very demagoguery on which Greece and Rome were founded. Writes Falasca-Zamponi, The erection of buildings and the remaking of the urban landscape, as well as the invention of new rituals and the establishment of pageant celebrations, were intended to contribute to the sacralization of the state under the aegis of the customer relationship marketing fascist government. The existence of the state depended on peoples’ faith in it. Faith in the state was assured by a mass liturgy whose function was to educate the Italians, making them new citizens and imparting a higher morality.
Let’s all throw our gold wedding rings into the cauldron for Benito’s war chest, and make the point that Benito’s own magnificent planned city, Asmara, in to manage, Ethiopia, is the only other modern imperial outpost to ask questions, deploy Niemeyer’s beloved curves as its central motif. The Italians called those curves Art Deco, and there, at the end of the earth, Asmara slowly returns to the desert from which Mussolini brought it forth. I submit Asmara, like Brasilia, is sex kitsch. Niemeyer was the favored architect of the Brazilian president who decided Brasilia should rise from the wasteland at to manage stress the center of the 3.3 million square mile nation, the world’s fifth largest. He writes that he declined a commission and designed Brasilia on abstracts on budgeting, the salary of a public servant, 40,000 cruzeiros antigos a month (Niemeyer, 71). This can be seen as a sign of Niemeyer’s communitarian altruism, freedom from essay, capitalist ideology, ambition of customer relationship Ayn Rand proportions, or the subtle coercion of a government whose political police still called the ways president’s fair-haired boy in for interrogation on account of his membership in the Communist Party. In his account of the interrogation, Niemeyer uses the racist Brazilian term, negrinho , to refer to the typist (Niemeyer, 90). That the oppression of women is the point man of fascism is the issue that renders me beady-eyed in Niemeyer’s curvilinear Brasilia. He keeps saying curvilinearity is pretty girls and Einstein’s universe. Dream? I think it is Brazilian contrarianism in the tradition of Nasser’s Third World, Communist intransigence, and fascist sex kitsch.
In the dedication of essay his autobiography, The Curves of Time , Niemeyer writes. I am not attracted to straight angles or to the straight line, hard and inflexible, created by man. I am attracted to free-flowing, sensual curves. The curves I find in the mountains of my country, in the sinuousness of its rivers, in in research, the waves of the ocean, and on the body of a beloved woman. Curves make up the to manage stress entire Universe, the curved Universe of Einstein. The curves could well be seen — Niemeyer does see them — as a principled Einsteinian protest against Le Corbusier’s coercive city beautiful.
But when the curves are only in the monuments set one by one, by introduction, the Corbu rubric, far away in the center of essay a ritualistic empty space, one is website that writes for you not moving off the idea that the city is a perfected and to manage essay completed (and therefore, possibly fascist) ideal form through which the movement of people is coercive and relationship thesis barely permitted. Ways To Manage Stress? When, in a typical remark, Niemeyer says on one occasion the Brazilian engineers had taught the old world architects they had little to learn, I understood much of Niemeyer’s contrarianism. Building a city in the middle of nowhere is Faust’s own imperialist apotheosis — that’s when the devil shows up to claim Faust’s soul. It is as well, part and parcel of Brazil’s impetus to deforest the planet of the Amazonian rainforest and forcibly remove the thesis abstracts aborigines from the site of the Belo Monte dam. The traditional riposte of the Brazilians to world protest has as much to do with Nasser’s leadership of to manage stress non-aligned Third World as it does with Brazilian nationalism. You can hear it in Niemeyer’s response to Berman, and in Lara’s 21st century playback. Ayn Rand Essay Contest? The U.S. old growth forests are gone, they argue, and no Yankee imperialist is going to tell us to stop the genocidal deportation of Indians or cap emissions you fail to do yourself.
You can see this nationalism, or exceptionalism, in Fernando Lara’s truthful observation that Brazil is not Latin America, and its urbanism developed differently from that in former Spanish colonies. However, for Lara to assert that Brazil has no tradition of plazas, or democratic space, doesn’t mean Berman is wrong in saying Brasilia has no public space and ways to manage stress essay is therefore not a city for relationship marketing democracy; under Berman’s Marxist rubric, it can also be seen as a tacit admission that Portuguese urban tradition is fascist. Lara’s ill-considered use of the word “organic” to describe the development of Portuguese colonial cities in Brazil can suggest the conflation by 20th century fascism of “organic” tradition — Kinder, Kirche, Kuche — with oppressive modern political tactics. Fascism is totally organic. Nothing could be more organic than genocide. Nor is there anything more organic than pornography as kitsch. To Manage Stress? Gillo Dorfles, the website for you yahoo answers pioneer scholar of kitsch — like Niemeyer, a centenarian — defined the terms of the argument in 1969. Gillo Dorfles, the pioneer scholar of ways stress kitsch, who recently curated a show in Milan called “Kitsch”.
Setting aside the modernists’ problem inherent in the definition of “beauty” as a mandarin taste for elites, and “ kitsch” as garbage art for the proles, Dorfles defines kitsch as bad taste. (Another awesome thing he does is finger Salvador Dali and fascist, caudillo Surrealism itself as kitsch, for which service to humanity he should be given a Nobel Peace Prize.) What’s wrong with it, Dorfles writes, is that it is a lie, a lie much more easily replicated in modern media (this would be part of Benjamin’s Marxist argument about can you papers replication), and that the cultural elite are extreme victims of it. Stress? There are a million more brain freeze zingers to live by in his 1969 masterpiece. Abstracts On Budgeting? The one which concerns the death and ways stress essay afterlife of Oscar Niemeyer is this one: Bad taste in politics begins therefore with modern dictatorships, and for an obvious reason: in the past, people could accept the fact that a man was endowed — by fate or by the divinity — with super human powers….Nowadays, whenever art has to bow to politics — or generally speaking, to some sort of ideology, even a religious one — it immediately becomes kitsch. Dorfles goes on to publish the excerpt of Clement Greenberg’s 1939 essay, The Avant-Garde and Kitsch . Dorfles notes it was written during the rise of “blatantly kitsch movements in Nazism, fascism, and plan Zdanovian Stalinism.” Greenberg, one of modernism’s seminal art critics, scans fascist spectacle and says Marxism is the only medium for ways to manage stress essay high culture and the avant-garde: Where today a political regime establishes an american essay official cultural policy, it is for the sake of demagogy. If kitsch is the official tendency of stress essay culture in Germany, Italy and ayn rand novels Russia, it is not because their respective governments are controlled by philistines, but because kitsch is the culture of the masses in ways to manage stress essay, these countries, as it is everywhere else….the main trouble with avant-garde art and literature, from the point of view of fascists and Stalinists, is not that they are too critical, but that they are too “innocent’, that it is too difficult to inject effective propaganda into them, that kitsch is more pliable to this end. Kitsch keeps a dictator in introduction dream, closer contact with the ‘soul’ of the people….Today we no longer look to essay, socialism for essays for you yahoo a new culture — as inevitably one will appear, once we do have socialism. Today we look to socialism simply for the preservation of stress essay whatever living culture we have right now. When Niemeyer claims Brasilia represents the people and to attack his city is to abstracts, attack the to manage stress essay people of Brazil, he is sounding very much like the fascist Greenberg describes.
For the ayn rand contest city to represent of the to manage stress people of Brazil — even though Brasilia arose from no referendum more popular than the election of the president who ordered its construction, and there was no peoples’ input into either Costa’s city layout or Niemeyer’s building blueprints — its makers had to claim to represent the can you ask questions in research peoples’ desire for to manage essay modernity. Whether or not the Brazilian people desired the modernity Niemeyer gave them is still — as Lara’s 2007 defense of Brasilia suggests — entirely debatable. Is a planned city organic enough for Lara’s defense of Portuguese colonial urbanism in the first place? Is planned inherently fascist and “organic” inherently democratic? The proof is in the pudding. Are there large public gathering spaces in Brasilia which are not designed to compel spectatorship of Niemeyer’s state structures? No. Having established that kitsch is basically a lie, and basically fascist propaganda, Dorfles and his culture warriors go on to discuss porn as kitsch . This is where the Niemeyer problem of sex kitsch gets good. In the teeth of ayn rand essay pornography, Dorfles gets down to as good a definition of kitsch as there is: Even ethics have their kitsch, and here one should consider two fundamental facts:
1.) that kitsch is essentially the falsification of sentiments and the substitution of spurious sentiments for real ones. Ways Essay? That is to say real feeling becomes sentimentality; this is the moral argument against kitsch. 2.) that where ethics are in evidence the aesthetic component suffers. Ugo Volli goes on to define pornokitsch as “false, sickly, sugary and slightly cold-blooded pornography adapted for kitsch -man” (Dorfles, 224) — kitsch -man being Dorfles’ rubber-necking spectator of modern life, the ggreal thesis man of bad taste as he behaves when confronted by a work of art (Dorfles, 15). Niemeyer insists all his designs are based on the bodies of the girls he watched from his office window on Copacabana beach. It seems macho , it seems imbued with Brazilian contrarianism, it seems, with Niemeyer’s many Iberian pronouncements on the nature of life as a sigh, as a relentless fatalistic trivialization of the aspirations of the people of Brazil. Arguably, it’s not too far away from saying all the people of Brazil aspire to essay, is the watermelon they’re all eating in Black Orpheus.
Booty and bossa nova. Ask Questions In Research Papers? It adds, perhaps, some credence to the suspicion of racism on Niemeyer’s part in the negrinho comment. One scene from the bossa nova film, Black Orpheus, which has received troubled comment. To Manage Stress? It was released in 1959, at the time Niemeyer and Costa began to shop business plan, design Brasilia. It has escaped the notice of no critic that the two domes of the National Congress he built in Brasilia are either breasts or buttocks. When Frank Gehry visited, Niemeyer showed him a photograph of women sunbathing on the beach, alternately facing up and stress essay facing down.
He told Gehry it explained everything. Years later, whe the New York Times architecture critic sees the website for you yahoo National Congress buildings, he sees the ways to manage stress essay girls from Copacabana again, in Brasilia: “They are beautiful and bizarre, isolated landmarks, marooned in the antiseptic environment, which they partly humanize by their erotic and symbolic charge. There in the distance is the National Congress, smartly off axis, with its vertical slabs balanced by two domes, half-melons, like Niemeyer’s female bathers, one facing up, the other down.” The BBC interviewer told the story of spending hours with Niemeyer in his office in american dream essay, front of a huge abstract photograph. Ways To Manage Essay? Only later did the interviewer realize it wasn’t sand dunes, but female buttocks. The National Congress buildings by Oscar Niemeyer in Brasilia, the planned capital city of Brazil. So as the customer thesis congressmen who represent the people of Brazil meet in a building representing beach bunny body parts, set in ways essay, an enormous empty plaza that even a defender like Lara notes is designed not for democratic gatherings but for driveby viewing, how does Niemeyer symbolize a museum? Museums are the place where nations build their own myths. How does Niemeyer design the national cathedral of Brasil? With the same kind of introduction dream trivialized and syrupy kitsch symbolism with which Niemeyer sexualizes federal buildings, thus trivializing and dismissing the democratic function of public space. The 2002 Museu Oscar Niemeyer he designed in Curitiba he called “a sculptural eye”.
It has a base tiled — in a modern take on the venerable Portuguese tradition of azulejos — with a naked woman, frolicking with an arc which literally repeats the shape of the eye looming so panoptically above her. Foucault says the panopticon represents modern surveillance society. There’s a lot to think about here about Surrealism, the fragmentation of capitalist trophies Berman mentions, and the fascist aesthetic inherent in museumizing an amputated and abstracted body part. Museu Oscar Niemeyer, Curitiba, Brazil. The cathedral of ways to manage essay Brasilia is either a crown of thorns or a flower. When Kimmelman visited in can you ask questions in research, 2005, it was empty. The glass windows were broken, it was full of the humid air of the vast bog that is central Brazil, birds nested in the upper struts and ways essay “A butterfly bumped against me, and I watched it zigzag toward the ceiling, into the sunlight.”
Oscar Niemeyer’s national cathedral at Brasilia. To the candangos, the unaccommodated people of color who built it, back in yahoo, the late ’50s, it must have looked like nothing so much as a rib roast. *For more on the Portuguese colonial urban tradition in Brazil, see this: One Brazilian architect dicusses the anti-grid, anti-plaza Portuguese influence, and goes on blithely to pitch the many gated communities her firm has designed for urban Brazilians. Stress? The market demands them, she says. They are “permeable”, she says — architect-speak meaning pedestrians can walk through them.
Gated communities, qua their racist, libertarian, tax revolt, and elitist origins, are anathema to the other great American urban theorist, the Marxist Mike Davis.