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Essay on Smoking In Public Places Should Be Banned | Bartleby
artaud essays When I was in in public graduate school, I saw a posting on the bulletin board in tunnel kento my department indicating that poets were 50 percent more likely than those in essay in public other professions to experience mental illness. In the moment, it didn#8217;t occur to me to wonder why it was necessary to post these survey results, where any number of poets were liable to see them. Instead, I thought they bore some important news: that poets were the genuine article. Because: nothing was more genuine than mental illness. Where#8217;s the beginning and the ending of the college degree justice master science thesis, theater, the building which houses this evening#8217;s drama? This is one of the first questions I ask when I#8217;m reading Antonin Artaud. Artaud no longer seems to think of the theater as inhabiting a particular space, just as there is no longer a space in the world uncontaminated by his theater.
His is a theater as big as the world. No part of our lives is argumentative essay in public, untouched by the need for its spectacle. In senior year of song has antithesis, college, I appeared in a production of The Cenci, by Artaud. True, this particular drama is unproducible, generally speaking, and not terribly #8220;good,#8221; according to the standards of conventional theater. On Smoking In Public? Probably The Cenci is an has antithesis, example of the failure of Artaud to find a way to apply his ideas. This didn#8217;t stop us, the essay in public, players of song has antithesis, my undergraduate years. In the essay on smoking in public, course of the action I was meant to song has antithesis, simulate copulation with an argumentative, actress who just then happened to be both my apartment mate and degree justice master write the lover of one of my best friends.
I threw myself into it, the simulation. I believed in the cruelty part of #8220;Theater of Cruelty.#8221; I simulated so violently, one night, that I banged my hand on the set, on the mise-en-scene, as it were, and gashed myself. It took a long while for the wound to heal. When it did, I was launched on argumentative essay on smoking in public, the world. I was a graduate. In those days: Genet and Derrida and Barthes and has antithesis Foucault and Deleuze, as well as Artaud.
Thus, the specific Artaud influence was a general French influence, and the general thrust of that French influence, as I understood it, included trusting in on smoking in public imagination as an do a plan, anarchic force, the unstoppable force, a force in the midst of forestalling the attempts of argumentative essay in public, society and relationships at work metaphysics to control and organize. #8220;Withdraw allegiance from the old categories of the argumentative essay on smoking in public, Negative (law, limit, castration, lack, lacuna), which Western thought has so long held sacred as a form of power and an access to reality. Prefer what is plan template, positive and on smoking in public multiple, difference over uniformity, flows over unities, mobile arrangements over song has antithesis systems#8221; (Foucault#8217;s preface to L#8217;Anti-Oedipe ). I therefore loved the surrealist manifestos, too. [ 2] I got bored only with the surrealists when the argumentative, principals became too enamored with politics. Artaud got bored early, too. He turned on them with a vengeance. The spurned lover.
My hypothesis: Artaud is part of a European and specifically French intellectual lineage obsessed with the rigors of truth-telling. (#8220;We are born, we live,#8221; he said, speaking to a tradition of paradoxical truths, #8220;we die in an environment of lies.#8221;) Artaud aspires to poverty and famines an essay on entitlement, be a magus of essay in public, truth, a sorcerer of at work essay, truth, and argumentative essay on smoking he is willing to die for it, or to be driven insane by his perceptions: #8220;I believe that our present social state is iniquitous and should be destroyed. If this is a fact for the theater to how to do a plan, be preoccupied with, it is even more a matter for machine guns.#8221; Does he believe what he#8217;s saying exactly as he#8217;s saying it, or does he simply believe that the truth is in the avowal, which avowal changes its utterer, makes it nearly impossible for him to bring the message back to the place where it most needs to essay on smoking, be brought—the place of how to template, mendacity? #8220;Should I be writing like Artaud? I am incapable of it,#8221; Derrida says, #8220;and besides, anyone who would try to write like him, under the pretext of writing toward him, would be even surer of missing him, would lose the slightest chance ever of meeting him in the ridiculous attempt of this mimetic distortion . #8221; Sontag argues that he#8217;s a gnostic (#8220;Artaud wandered in the labyrinth of a specific type of religious sensibility, the argumentative on smoking in public, Gnostic one#8221;), meaning, I suppose, that he believed in a secret, unimpeded route to the divine, that he could have personal access, without requiring the apparatus of the church and its intercessions. Or: gnostic meaning that the divine with which he consorts is a malignancy? A failed demiurge? I#8217;m not always sure which gnosticism Sontag refers to. [ 3] And yet you do feel Artaud#8217;s fealty to how to template, the concealed, especially in, e.g., To Have Done with the Judgment of God, his radio play. On Smoking? Likewise the late work generally, Artaud le Momo, and Van Gogh, The Man Suicided by Society, etc.
Perhaps the secret he pursues is college degree justice thesis, between things and between the words that describe these things. His secret is unpronounceable and cannot be passed on, but certain gestures indicate the argumentative essay in public, direction in which we might proceed. Has Antithesis? Thus his love of essay in public, hieroglyphics, words that are illustrative, not alphabetical, #8220;And these three-dimensional hieroglyphs are in turn brocaded with a certain number of gestures—mysterious signs which correspond to interpersonal essay, some unknown, fabulous, and argumentative obscure reality which we here in the Occident have completely repressed.#8221; I was studying a lot of drama, and I therefore remember, reading from the Theater of the Absurd. Term Paper? Pirandello and some Ionesco and some Arrabal and some Beckett. I loved these playwrights, even when the absurdist humor was, well, a little juvenile in spots. Scatological, but perhaps with an argumentative in public, emphasis on the logical. I liked the Arrabal play set in an automobile graveyard. I liked the Ionesco play featuring rhinoceroses. And yet this anarchy was too gentle.
The Theater of the Absurd had been tamed by then, and that was obvious, especially so when I came to read The Theater and Its Double, the overture of which ends with a miraculous, life-altering terminus, a terminus which was enough to relationships at work, discredit, in some measure, much of what I loved about the Theater of the argumentative essay, Absurd: #8220;And if there is still one hellish, truly accursed thing in our time, it is our artistic dallying with forms, instead of being like victims burnt at the stake, signaling through the flames.#8221; The Theater of song, Cruelty, you see, was never tamed. What#8217;s with the before and after photos of Artaud? Always before illness and then after ? You#8217;d think he was a dieter. Yes, Artaud was an incredibly beautiful young man and later, per contra, he was weather-beaten and humbled. Wracked by cancer and decades of addiction, not to mention ECT and other exotic psychiatric treatments. Insulin therapy.
Yet perhaps the beaten-down quality is still an interpretation of on smoking in public, Artaud. The photos are a luxury for those who already know what they think. We imagine there is an appearance to mental illness, though mental illness looks like nothing. Suffering looks like something. But generally mental illness is simply the physical illness that bears no trace. Derrida: #8220;It would certainly be disingenuous to close our eyes, either because of some literary feeling or some absentminded politeness, to what Artaud himself describes as a neuropathological persecution. Degree Science? Moreover, that kind of disingenuousness would be insulting. The man is sick.#8221; When I was acting in college, there was a certain kind of play, a certain kind of theater, that flattened life and reduced its complexity and menace and variety, leaving a mere residue of pabulum. Argumentative On Smoking? I refer to the issue-oriented parlor drama . The protagonists in these plays sit around yacking about abortion or euthanasia or about church and song state, and someone gives a monologue and then commences to weep. Artaud#8217;s contempt is instructive: #8220;All true feeling is in reality untranslatable. To express it is to betray it.
But to translate it is to dissimulate it. Essay? True expression hides what it makes manifest.#8221; What would theater be like if there could be a genuine Theater of Cruelty along the lines proposed? I admire, e.g., the Living Theater, at poverty an essay, least as I understand them to have been, from argumentative essay on smoking in public, videos and written accounts. They argue for something like an applied Theater of Cruelty. Paradise Now or Dionysus in 69: these seem to have consisted of people running around in term an audience shouting things. Breaking the Fourth Wall. Essay? Are the tunnel thesis, words being shouted about Vietnam?
The savagery of American capitalism? The iniquities and inequities of human things? They are. Perhaps this revolution feels quaint now. Why, then, am I so fascinated, so moved, by the idea of any such performance?
By the Living Theater and on smoking in public the work of Jerzy Grotowski, et al.? Because it#8217;s spontaneous, because it is happening now, because it puts the life back in live theater. Psychosis is tunnel thesis kento, timeless, psychosis is exclusionary, psychosis is isolated, psychosis is excruciating. Not that I have experienced more than the drug-induced kind, but I have shared a room. Psychosis involves torment. Argumentative Essay On Smoking In Public? It#8217;s hard for the layperson to construct what this variety of torment feels like. [ 4] As if schizophrenia were a contagion, so complete is our recoiling from it.
Artaud reiterates this quality of his predicament so regularly, his torment, [ 5] that we become inured to the protestations, and in this way perhaps he is forced into metaphor: #8220;You have seen the hordes of demons which afflict me night and day, you have seen them as clearly as you see me. You have seen what filthy erotic manipulations they are constantly performing on me.#8221; In metaphor, the criminal degree master science thesis, flourishing of the essay on smoking in public, etiology of torment, as if translated for us. Later, when I was in the psychiatric hospital myself, I shared the ward with a guy called Herbie. Really nice guy. He might have been my buddy back in high school. He had an impish sense of humor, and a poorly grown-in mustache, but he had taken too much acid, which had gotten to him, and now he was more or less schizophrenic—depending on the day and on how to business, his levels of medication. Essay On Smoking? When Herbie was not floridly psychotic, he was very badly depressed. He had a good sense of what he#8217;d done to interpersonal, himself, what synapses he had cooked. I spent a memorable evening once watching Herbie attempt to explain playing cards, their meaning, to a catatonic woman.
For Herbie, the words of the explanation existed mainly as sounds, not words, but as assonances and euphonies. As the explanation was addressed to someone unresponsive, it could not be but successful, if only in a limited way. Essay? Herbie therefore gave himself over to it with great energy. He performed it. How to think of the double in The Theater and Its Double ? Doubling as a figment of a hermeneutically obsessed imagination? The double as the thing behind the interpersonal relationships at work, thing?
The secret component, the true raiment, the aspect of the material realm that shines forth for the chosen ? My own particular emotional difficulty was hermeneutic, in the sense that I thought beneath all men, beneath all masculinity, was savagery that I couldn#8217;t see; all men were rapists, in my own madness (if madness is the right word), and they were temporarily concealing this rapacity; I would see it in them, on essay, the bus, on the subway, each man concealing his bloodthirsty secret. Like many people who are high-functioning but ill, I tried not to discuss these thoughts, these things that I was thinking, which made me feel more isolated, in turn more hermeneutical, more preoccupied with the interiority of relationships at work essay, my inquiries, the illness thus somehow causing the illness, the argumentative on smoking in public, lack of criminal master science write, a cure preventing the possibility of a cure. Essay? Artaud lost his mind in Ireland, if by mind we refer to the part of him that could construct experience nonmetaphorically. First there was the trip to Mexico, which must have been a huge undertaking, [ 6] to pull up stakes from home in poverty Europe for this disorderly New World. There was a lot of argumentative on smoking, intoxication in tunnel thesis Mexico, and much sorcery, because this was Mexico, a land of myth, where teenagers are sacrificed, and men are turned into coyotes, and in public black magic is the methodology term, spectacle. William S. Burroughs looked for and found similar things there. Artaud wasn#8217;t in Mexico long, just a few months, in part because it was not populated by theatrical adepts, but, in the countryside, by indigenous people trying to scrape by.
Not long after Mexico, his trip to on smoking in public, Ireland. 1937. A country and a mythological apparatus to which I have made pilgrimages myself. Artaud didn#8217;t speak English very well, it is said, and while he was there, he had a hard time making himself understood. Maybe this is because he was no longer speaking in any recognizable tongue. What is it about Ireland? On the one hand, like Mexico, it has its substratum of ancient stories, druidic symbols, icons, dolmens. And then again it is tunnel thesis kento, layered over in the habits of Christianity, with which Artaud much struggled—the old, vengeful Abrahamic god. August Strindberg was another troubled psychotic of the theater who interested me, back when.
I performed in Ghost Sonata in high school, and later in A Dream Play. In college. These were tortured, haunted, deeply unsettling plays. Artaud mounted productions of each. When I was preparing for A Dream Play, I went and argumentative read translations of nearly all of Strindberg#8217;s journals and novels. Do A Business Template? He really did believe that there were gears in the walls of his flat (it#8217;s a very popular hallucination) and that neighbors were trying to drive him crazy with infernal engines. [ 7] Artaud delights in argumentative essay in public paradoxes, he gathers them in, devours them, embodies paradoxes. Thus the assault on the language of the theater and the preference of the theater for text over mise-en-scene is written in the most elevated and college criminal justice master write perfectly calibrated prose: #8220;What is essential now, it seems to me, is to determine what this physical language consists of, this solidified, materialized language by means of which theater is able to differentiate itself from speech.#8221; What#8217;s so horrible about argumentative essay in public, text, you may want to methodology term paper, ask, if it permits this gloriousness we have before us, the Oeuvres of Artaud? In glossolalia, favored by the later Artaud, words become vessels of argumentative on smoking, sound, and the repetition is what#8217;s pleasing.
The meaning becomes the materiality, and the gesture of the words in their improvised modality brings us close to the original spirit of interpersonal relationships essay, language. It#8217;s like the Latin mass overheard by a nonspeaker of essay, Latin: Artaud advocates glossolalia well before he employs it. He advocates it in his assault on the textuality of European playwriting, and then later, in poverty and famines his illness, he free-falls into non-textuality, which means: as if at the prompting of God. There#8217;s a way that I always disbelieve Artaud, too, especially now that I am twenty years from my own time in the psychiatric hospital. In my disbelief, sometimes he seems just a sick person, and I want to say that I am no longer willing to be sick for argumentative essay on smoking in public my own art—it#8217;s a young man#8217;s game—and I think the term, fact that Artaud exists mostly in fragments, the fact that his plays are often unfinished, unmounted, or critical failures, doesn#8217;t look so good in the harsh light of retrospection. Conquest of Mexico, e.g., it might work in film, if you hired some team of digital technicians to design the backdrops and had all the actors acting in front of blue screens, but no one would underwrite such a film, and argumentative on smoking anyway film is not theater, has no legitimate spectacle about it, film isn#8217;t live . In 1984, I saw a performance piece by Sylvere Lotringer—at the St. Mark#8217;s Poetry Project in New York City—about Artaud. In the course of the evening, Sylvere played a recording of criminal degree thesis, To Have Done with the Judgment of God, Artaud#8217;s radio play and last major work.
The radio play was in French, but there was a simultaneous translation in English (projected). Finally, I heard Artaud#8217;s voice, a deeply scary thing. Argumentative? To me the radio play sounded punk, like Throbbing Gristle, or like Test Department, or like Einsturzende Neubauten. This sound of torment is simulated in methodology term paper punk and post-punk, but in Artaud#8217;s voice, it was anything but: I learned yesterday / one of the most sensational of those official practices of American public schools / which no doubt account for the fact that this country believes itself to argumentative, be in the vanguard of progress. / It seems that, among the tunnel, examinations of tests required of a child entering public school for argumentative in public the first time, there is the so-called seminal fluid or sperm test, / which consists of asking this newly entering child for a small amount of his sperm so it can be placed in a jar and methodology paper kept ready.#8230; When he#8217;s really onto his subject, he inevitably summons the biological horrors. What he#8217;s written is written on the body: #8220;The idea of a detached art, of poetry as a charm which exists only to distract our leisure, is a decadent idea and an unmistakable symptom of our power to on smoking in public, castrate.#8221; The stench of fiction is interpersonal essay, a perfume formulated by my friend Bradford Morrow to describe some artifices of the literary now. The shallowness of argumentative essay on smoking, literary business as usual, the poverty and famines an essay, complicity, the smugness, the argumentative in public, self-satisfaction, the predictability, the consonance with an existing power structure, the reverence for sentimentality, the melodrama, the bad prose, the relationships at work essay, total poverty of essay in public, imagination and innovation, the lack of surprise, the insularity, the flaccidity, the tediousness, the frequent disappointment of literature. Sontag, in her introduction to Artaud, describes the hatred of literature as part of the and famines an essay, process for the surrealists, and thus part of the process for a young Artaud.
And yet in America, it seems to me, there is much left to be done. Our fiction has a more fecal perfume, and when Morrow describes breathing deep of the stench, therefore, being able to perceive in argumentative on smoking it its giardia and streptococcus B, even from a distance, he is also describing what I love about Artaud, the methodology, desire to lay siege, and then to delight in the aftermath. Argumentative Essay On Smoking? #8220;The Theater and the Plague,#8221; from The Theater and Its Double, is among the most astonishing modern essays on literary aesthetics, and poverty and famines on entitlement it shook my very foundations. Perhaps most arresting is the fact that it does its work entirely by metaphor. Argumentative On Smoking? #8220;Before the methodology paper, onset of any marked physical or psychological discomfort, the body is covered in red spots,#8221; the author begins, before detailing at argumentative on smoking, great length the horrors of the affliction, #8220;and these blisters are surrounded by circles, of which the outermost, like Saturn#8217;s ring around the incandescent planet, indicates the extreme limit of has antithesis, a bubo.#8221; It#8217;s only essay, well into the essay that Artaud finally connects the plague to his subject, the theater. (#8220;There are other analogies which confirm the only truths that count and song has antithesis locate the action of the theater like that of the argumentative essay, plague on the level of a veritable epidemic.#8221;) A simile, wrapped inside a metaphor, inside a metaphor, like a bubo with its rings—literature ought to relationships at work, be like theater, as theater is itself like a plague, as all of life is like theater, is theater. Recently, I had lunch with a schizophrenic guy, an old college friend. It wasn#8217;t so bad. In fact, it was a pleasure. Among other topics, we spoke of the argumentative on smoking in public, Internet, this friend and poverty and famines on entitlement I, about social-networking sites in particular. On Smoking In Public? I was expecting him to essay, be suspicious of argumentative, these sites because it was through them, through connectivity, that the tunnel kento, Forces of Evil could locate him and torture him, as he insisted the Forces of Evil already had. What he instead said about Facebook was: #8220;Those people will know that I don#8217;t work.#8221; The social part of life had become what was insurmountable to him. On Smoking In Public? He had fallen away from the world.
Artaud on literature: Written poetry is worth reading once, and then should be destroyed. Books, texts, magazines are tombstones. Dear friend, I detest literature more than you do. Thesis? The duty of the argumentative essay, writer, of the poet is not to shut himself up like a coward in a text, a book, a magazine from which he never comes out. One mustn#8217;t let in and famines an essay too much literature. All writing is garbage. People who come out of nowhere to try to put into words any part of what goes on in their minds are pigs. The second day I was in in public the psychiatric hospital, they made us take a current events test. There was a girl in there with me, a girl with horrible anorexia and all kinds of scars on her wrists. She was unable to read through a single headline in the newspaper.
That was the substance of the test. Read a newspaper article aloud and describe what was in song has antithesis it. She couldn#8217;t even get through a single headline. Argumentative? Her insurance was about to run out, at methodology term paper, which point she was going to get shipped to the state hospital, which was not a treatment-oriented facility. By contrast, I was well enough informed on politics and current events.
I could easily read from the essay in public, newspaper. And yet part of my sickness was located in the fact that I found the anorexic girl, so bent on her own demise, glorious, tragic, and luminous. Artaud went to great lengths to defend the word cruelty. Interpersonal Relationships Essay? Some critics of the manifestos of the Theater of Cruelty were made uncomfortable by the literal associations of the word. Still, there#8217;s a danger, I think, in not taking the word cruelty literally. Artaud intends the force of what he has written—though he seems not to be the sort of person who would have been physically cruel to anyone. #8220;Cruelty signifies rigor, implacable intention and decision, irreversible and absolute determination,#8221; he observes, but the sentence, forced on him by on smoking in public, those who would have clarification, doesn#8217;t have the neon savagery of his finer moments: #8220;Death is cruelty, resurrection is cruelty, transfiguration is cruelty, since nowhere in criminal justice master thesis a circular and closed world is there room for true death, since ascension is a rending, since closed space is fed with lives, and each stronger life tramples down the others, consuming them in argumentative essay a massacre which is a transfiguration and a bliss.#8221; Recognizing that paranoid schizophrenic is a term that psychiatrists pencil onto charts or insurance forms, I suppose I would still have to use the term or something like it to describe my college friend Joe, at least if I was bent on oversimplifying. Song? I suppose I would say he is a paranoid schizophrenic, except that he is on smoking in public, basically stable, and presentable, if a person of modest means. On the day we had lunch, I first met him on the street corner, he made small talk in the usual way, and then, with a slightly worried grin, he asked, #8220;Rick, what are you doing here? Don#8217;t you know how dangerous it is?#8221; I said that I was just there to have lunch with him. To which Joe said, #8220;Well, then you must be a double, too.#8221; When I argued that I wasn#8217;t a double, he said, #8220;Then why are you here?#8221; In or about 1956, Gregory Bateson conceived of the #8220;double bind#8221; theory to describe aspects of difficulties experienced by schizophrenics: [ 8] according to has antithesis, Bateson, the schizophrenic experiences his symptoms as a result of this causative straitjacketing, a nexus of contradictory social or emotional messages, to essay in public, which psychosis is a logical response. Bateson suggests that the schizophrenic has #8220;trouble in identifying and term paper interpreting those signals which should tell the individual what sort of message a message is, i.e., trouble with the signals of the argumentative in public, same logical type as the signal #8216;This is degree justice master science thesis, play.#8217;#8221; [ 9] The psychotic break, in this argument, is the result of the strata of difficulties experienced by argumentative essay on smoking in public, the patient—in the family, in the home, in the world.
But maybe doubling is also built into language, into the exchange of kento, utterances, as in the remark by argumentative essay in public, Bateson, #8220;Language commonly stresses only one side of any interaction. Double description is better than one.#8221; And doubling is also implicit in the gnostic idea (in Hypostasis of the Archons, e.g.), wherein this world is an inferior copy of the more perfect heavenly one. And doubling is likewise central to world literature, and thus its prevalence in Dostoyevsky, Nabokov, Saramago, Hogg, et al. How To Do A Business? But as the copies are copied, the on smoking, image becomes muddier, becomes barren. After Ireland, the cast of Artaud#8217;s prose turned dark once and for all (#8220;I no longer know what is normal or supranormal#8221;). Template? This was also the moment in which he was correcting the essay on smoking in public, proofs of his masterwork The Theater and Its Double. As Sontag sketches in her time line, #8220;By the time The Theater and Its Double appeared, Artaud was interned in the Sainte-Anne Hospital in Paris.#8221; Was it his childhood case of meningitis? Was it getting stabbed, when he was nineteen?
Were those trauma enough? Was it the inadvertent opiate detoxification, on the trip to Mexico? Artaud speaks glancingly to this last issue, detoxification, in the sections I have read of #8220;A Voyage to the Land of the Tarahumara,#8221; concerning his travels. And in song has antithesis my own case, if I may speak to argumentative essay on smoking, it again briefly, the detox was unpleasant, and the stress made me liable to have even more unintelligible thoughts than I#8217;d had before. Drink made depression far worse. But at the same time, once I detoxed, then I really did imagine I heard people calling to me. I thought I was seeing things on the television that weren#8217;t really there, like transsexual prostitutes. Lots of them. Artaud says of the ingestion of peyote (into his newly detoxified system), on the trip into song, the Mexican interior: #8220;For now that he was dead his double could not wait for these evil spirits to be neutralized.#8230;#8221; And, later: #8220;Peyote, as I knew, was not made for Whites.#8230; And a White, for these Red men, is one whom the spirits have abandoned.#8221; The #8217;30s were eventful. On Smoking? In the first part of the decade, he struggled with opiate addiction and relationships at work essay with his acting career, soon abandoned, and then in 1936, he embarked for Mexico. To see his ideas bear fruit!
Laying over in Havana, Artaud received as a gift a small sword, which he came to regard as possessed of magical powers. Argumentative Essay In Public? He detoxified again, in Mexico, having been unable to secure supply. In due course he relapsed. Back in France, he tried twice again to song, detoxify, without success. Then, in 1937, he made the trip to Ireland. Essay? There he attempted to employ a staff that he insisted was a religious relic to repel necromantic spells.
This did not endear him to methodology term, the locals (#8220;Now the on smoking in public, true christ is he who has given me his own staff, his magnetic magic wand, and methodology term he has no connection, I beg you to believe, with the christ of Christianity, or the christ of Catholicism#8221;). In Dublin, he was jailed briefly, and then deported. Upon landing, he failed to recognize his own mother. Argumentative Essay On Smoking In Public? No theater extant, no theater in history, exists, #8220;which would fulfill Artaud#8217;s desire,#8221; Derrida suggests, #8220;and there would be no exception to be made for the attempts made by Artaud himself.#8221; This is part of why I admired him, especially when young—because his desire was such as to exceed possible fulfillment. But this is why it#8217;s also easy to misread him, as perhaps the Living Theater did, in thinking that mere provocation will do justice to the ideas. Probably what Artaud exhibits, in the end, is a purely literary construct, and that#8217;s why his sentences are so dazzling, even when he is at his most ill.
The sentences are the engine of his desire, but things collapse in his unsturdy vision: living and being, body and soul, self and other. So: I feel what his language means in my extremities, even if I don#8217;t always know what he means in my mind, and that feeling is the precondition of interpersonal, being swept away, as in: This century no longer understands fecal poetry, the intestine malady of herself, Madam Death, who since the age of ages has been sounding the depths of her dead woman#8217;s column, her dead woman#8217;s anal column, in the excrement of an argumentative on smoking in public, abolished survival, the how to, corpse too of her abolished selves, and essay on smoking who for the crime of not having been able to exist, for never having been able to be a creature, had to fall, the better to sound the depths of her own being into this abyss of foul matter and indeed so pleasantly foul in which the song has antithesis, corpse of Madam Death, Madam Fecal Uterine, Madam Anus, hell upon hell of excrement, in the opium of her excrement, foments hunger, the fecal destiny of her soul, in the uterus of her own center. How indelible his assault, his obliteration of pere-mere, his refusal of origin, which leads, by on smoking, synecdoche, or by syntax, to his body without organs— because if you have no origin, it stands to tunnel thesis, reason that you have no organs, no materiality, and thus you do not have to produce, and what Derrida says here, refusing biographical resonances while alluding to them, seems unavoidable: #8220;If it is essay, precisely at this point that we recall that Artaud died of cancer of the rectum, we do not do so in order to have exception prove the rule, but because we think that the has antithesis, status (still to argumentative essay, be found) of this remark, and of other similar ones, must not be that of the so-called #8216;biographical reference.#8217;#8221; If Foucault, meanwhile, is correct in defining madness as #8220;the absence of work,#8221; then Artaud was not mad, as he said himself on methodology term, occasion (#8220;I want them to understand that I have never been either mad or sick#8221;). He leaves so much behind that constitutes work. Pages and pages of it. Wrestling with his works could fill a life.
I, on the other hand, was mad, technically speaking, in on smoking the period just after being institutionalized, just after colliding with the institution, because in and after, I had trouble writing, couldn#8217;t write, and thus I constituted an absence of work, an inability to reflect, a shortage of paper, will. I thought madness was a prerequisite for poetry, once upon a time. But if you believe Artaud, the in public, prerequisite for poetry is having a body, living in it, fighting against business plan template, its limitations, rejecting it. Many are his legacies in me—an attraction to a certain kind of metaphor, a love of physiognomy as a locator for essay on smoking consciousness, and an understanding of the dramatic platform and its possibilities. But most foundationally there is the paper, sheer music of language, at the moment it addresses the outrages. #8220;I can no longer think except in argumentative essay on smoking in public fragments.#8221; #8617; #8220;Surrealism#8217;s confidence cannot be well or ill placed for the simple reason that it is thesis, not placed. Neither in the palpable world, nor palpably outside of this world, nor in the perpetuity of mental associations which favor our existence with a natural demand or a superior whim, nor in in public the interest which the #8216;mind#8217; may have in tunnel kento sparing itself our transient clientele#8221; ( Manifestoes of Surrealism ). Argumentative On Smoking? #8617; #8220;Central to Mithraism, Manichaeism, Zoroastrianism, and Tantric Buddhism,#8221; she says, without narrowing the field ( Select Writings ). #8617; #8220;Every bath I took was connected with ideas of college criminal degree justice science, drowning.#8230; I nearly always entered the argumentative, bath inwardly afraid that its purpose was to end my life.
The inner voices#8230; spoke to me continuously in this sense and derided my lack of relationships at work, manly courage to argumentative essay on smoking in public, carry it out.#8221; Daniel Paul Schreber, Memoirs of My Nervous Illness . #8617; #8220;I am a man who has suffered much from the mind.#8221; #8617; #8220;This mission has to do with discovering and reviving the vestiges of the ancient Solar culture.#8221; #8617; After his own psychotic break, Nietzsche wrote to Strindberg—as if all the mad writers eventually find their way to one another: #8220;I have ordered a convocation of princes in Rome—I mean to have the young emperor shot.#8221; Strindberg replied with a quotation from the Greek that goes, roughly, #8220;Meanwhile, it is a joy to be mad.#8221; #8617; In, e.g., Steps to an Ecology of Mind, University of Chicago Press: Chicago, 1972. #8617; Ibid., p. Tunnel Thesis Kento? 194. #8617; Rick Moody is the author of four novels, three collections of on smoking in public, stories, and a memoir. He plays music in the Wingdale Community Singers. He lives in Brooklyn with his wife and daughter. Interpersonal Relationships At Work? Image: Artaud as the monk Massieu in Carl Dreyer#8217;s The Passion of Joan of Arc (1928)
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Genetic structure and argumentative on smoking, diversity of indigenous rice ( Oryza sativa ) varieties in methodology the Eastern Himalayan region of argumentative essay on smoking, Northeast India. © Choudhury et al.; licensee Springer. 2013. Received: 27 February 2013. The Eastern Himalayan region of Northeast (NE) India is home to an essay, a large number of argumentative on smoking, indigenous rice varieties, which may serve as a valuable genetic resource for college criminal degree thesis, future crop improvement to meet the ever-increasing demand for food production. However, these varieties are rapidly being lost due to changes in land-use and agricultural practices, which favor agronomically improved varieties. Essay On Smoking. A detailed understanding of the genetic structure and diversity of indigenous rice varieties is master science write, crucial for efficient utilization of rice genetic resources and for developing suitable conservation strategies. To explore the genetic structure and diversity of argumentative essay, rice varieties in NE India, we genotyped 300 individuals of at work, 24 indigenous rice varieties representing sali , boro , jum and glutinous types, 5 agronomically improved varieties, and one wild rice species ( O. rufipogon ) using seven SSR markers. A total of argumentative, 85 alleles and a very high level of gene diversity (0.776) were detected among the on entitlement indigenous rice varieties of the region. Considerable level of on smoking in public, genetic variation was found within indigenous varieties whereas improved varieties were monoporphic across all loci.
The comparison of genetic diversity among different types of rice revealed that sali type possessed the relationships at work highest gene diversity (0.747) followed by jum (0.627), glutinous (0.602) and boro (0.596) types of indigenous rice varieties, while the lowest diversity was detected in agronomically improved varieties (0.459). The AMOVA results showed that 66% of the variation was distributed among varieties indicating a very high level of genetic differentiation in rice varieties in the region. Two major genetically defined clusters corresponding to argumentative essay, indica and japonica groups were detected in rice varieties of the region. Overall, traditionally cultivated indigenous rice varieties in NE India showed high levels of genetic diversity comparable to how to business plan template, levels of genetic diversity reported from wild rice populations in various parts of the world. The efforts for conservation of rice germplasm in NE India should consider saving rice varieties representing different types with specific emphasis given to sali and jum types. Argumentative Essay On Smoking In Public. The protection against methodology term paper, the loss of vast genetic diversity found in indigenous rice varieties in NE India is crucial for maintaining future food security in the changing world. The Asian cultivated rice ( Oryza sativa L.) is on smoking in public, one of the most important crops and a major food source for more than half of the global human population. Song. Phylogeographical and archeological evidence suggest that rice was domesticated over on smoking 10000 years ago from has antithesis its wild ancestor O. Argumentative On Smoking. rufipogon in the region south of the Himalayan mountain range, likely in has antithesis the present day Eastern and NE India, extending Eastward to Nepal, Myanmar and Thailand to Southern China (Chang 1976 ; Khush 1997 ; Londo et al. Argumentative In Public. 2006 ). A recent study suggests that one of the song has antithesis two sub-species of argumentative on smoking in public, Asian rice, O. sativa ssp indica was domesticated in Southeast and South Asia while the other sub-species, O. sativa ssp japonica was domesticated in Southern China (Huang et al. Has Antithesis. 2012 ). Argumentative Essay On Smoking In Public. During the domestication process, individuals with desirable traits have been selected leaving most of the genetic diversity behind in the progenitors (Doebley et al.
2006 ). Zhu et al. Do A Business Template. ( 2007 ) estimated that the argumentative essay cultivated rice contains only about 25% of the genetic diversity found in criminal justice master science write its wild progenitors depicting severe genetic erosion during domestication. Essay. Furthermore, a considerable level of genetic diversity was lost during the agronomic improvement of commonly cultivated rice. Map of Northeast India showing sampling sites of traditionally cultivated indigenous rice varieties. The sali type, which comprises majority of rice varieties of the methodology paper region is cultivated in low-lying flood plains of NE India, mainly in the Brahmaputra and Barak Valley regions. Essay On Smoking In Public. The boro type is traditionally cultivated during the winter months (November through May) in low-lying areas where sufficient water is available during the cold and dry months of the year. Thus, boro type rice varieties may contain genotypes suitable for cold adaptation. The dryland cultivated rice varieties, normally grown in slash and burn agriculture system, and criminal degree master science thesis, locally known as jum type, show adaptations to a wide range of argumentative, ecological conditions including low levels of poverty and famines, soil moisture in areas at essay high altitudes reaching over 3000 m above sea level. The glutinous grain type rice is commonly cultivated throughout the region as a source of grain for breakfast and dessert for many ethnic communities in the region. In addition to interpersonal relationships at work, cultivated indigenous rice varieties, natural populations of many wild rice species including O. Argumentative. rufipogon , O. granulata , O. officinalis , O. Tunnel. nivara , O. meyeriana , Hygrorhiza aristata , Leersia hexandra and argumentative essay on smoking in public, Zizenia latifolia are also found in the Northeastern region of interpersonal relationships at work, India (Hore 2005 ).
The indigenous rice varieties cultivated by traditional farmers may contain a considerable genetic diversity that can serve as a source of germplasm for genetic improvements of cultivated varieties of rice. In general, diverse landraces traditionally cultivated by farmers around the centers of diversity and domestication of crops are considered as key natural resources (Pusadee et al. Argumentative On Smoking In Public. 2009 ) important for maintaining the future food security in light of the changing climate. Although a few studies have examined the population genetic structure of O. sativa germplasm at a global scale (Glaszmann 1987 ; Garris et al. 2005 ), region specific studies are limited.
Earlier studies based on morphology and agronomic traits (Vairavan et al. 1973 ; Borkakati et al. 2000 ; Sarma and Pattanayak 2009 ) as well as molecular markers (isozyme, RAPD, ISSR) demonstrated a high level of genetic diversity among indigenous rice varieties in NE India (Glaszmann et al. 1989 ; Sarma and and famines, Bahar 2005 ; Bhuyan et al. 2007 ). However, these studies were limited either to a particular group of varieties ( e.g. glutinous rice and lowland varieties) or to a narrow geographic region. In particular, no extensive studies have focused on the genetic structure of some of the widely cultivated indigenous types such as boro (cultivated in low-lying perennial water bodies during winter season), jum (cultivated in argumentative essay on smoking in public upland areas in relationships hill-slopes and low soil moisture condition), sali (most widely cultivated rice during monsoon season) and glutinous (sticky rice with cultural importance) covering the wider geographic area. The ongoing rapid changes in agricultural practices that favor agronomically improved varieties has become a serious threat for the persistence of indigenous rice varieties in essay in public NE India. Thus, conservation and management strategies are urgently needed to prevent further loss of genetic diversity inherent to criminal degree science thesis write, indigenous rice varieties in the region.
A detailed understanding of the genetic structure and diversity is needed for the planning and implementation of effective conservation, management and utilization of rice germplasm in the whole region. The objectives of the present study are to (1) assess genetic diversity among indigenous rice varieties in the Eastern Himalayan region of the NE India, (2) compare the genetic diversity in argumentative indigenous varieties with agronomically improved varieties (3) assess distribution of genetic diversity among different types and (4) infer the methodology population genetic structure of rice varieties in NE India. Cultivation type, location and argumentative essay on smoking in public, genetic diversity values of college criminal justice thesis, traditionally cultivated indigenous and argumentative essay in public, agronomically improved rice varieties including the wild rice ( O. rufipogon ) in methodology term Northeast India (AP, Arunachal Pradesh; AS, Assam, ML, Meghalaya, MZ, Mizoram) A = Observed no. of allele; Na = Average no. of alleles per 7 loci; Npo = No. of polymorphic loci; Npe = Percent polymorphic loci; R A = Rare allele; I = Shannon information index; H e = Nei gene diversity. Details of SSR loci used in the present study and their genetic diversity parameters.
Chr, Chromosome location; Na, Observed number of alleles; He, Nei ( 1973 ) genetic diversity. The size of argumentative essay on smoking, each amplified fragment was determined by comparison with the size standard and and famines an essay, scored to prepare the genotype matrix. Essay On Smoking. To determine the methodology term optimum number of individuals per variety to be genotyped to capture the total diversity, the number of individuals analyzed were increased one by one until the number of argumentative essay in public, alleles reached to a maximum with no further increase for poverty and famines on entitlement, a given locus. Accordingly, we determined that 10 individuals per variety was sufficient to capture the total genetic variation in a given variety. Argumentative Essay. Therefore, we genotyped 300 individuals (10 individuals per variety for 30 varieties) at seven SSR loci for the present study. The SSR genotype data matrix was used for paper, assessing genetic diversity and structure in a hierarchical manner from overall (all indigenous varieties), through different types and each variety. The among type genetic diversity was calculated by considering all genotyped individuals of a given type as one population while genetic parameters for among variety was calculated based on 10 genotyped individuals per variety.
The observed average number of alleles per locus ( N a), average allelic richness ( R S ), population differentiation ( F ST ) and Nei gene diversity ( H e) (Nei 1973 ) were calculated using FSTAT 126.96.36.199 (Goudet 2001 ). Allelic richness is the number of alleles for each population averaged over loci and standardized for the smallest population size. Average effective number of on smoking, alleles ( N e) and Shannon information index ( I ) were calculated using PopGene version 1.31 (Yeh et al. Methodology Term. 1999 ). Average pairwise genetic differences between varieties was calculated using Arlequin 3.5 (Excoffier and Lischer 2010 ). Argumentative Essay On Smoking In Public. Analysis of kento, Molecular Variance (AMOVA) (Excoffier et al. 1992 ) within variety, among variety and among types was performed in argumentative essay in public Arlequin 3.5 (Excoffier and Lischer 2010 ) to determine the distribution of variation at different hierarchical levels. Song. The statistical significance of the variance components was tested with 1000 permutations.
Genetic distance among varieties were estimated using chord genetic distance method (Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards 1967 ). Argumentative Essay. The genetic distance based clustering was performed with the methodology paper unweighted pairgroup method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) using PowerMarker v3.25 (Liu and Muse 2005 ), and argumentative essay, the dendrogram was constructed using MEGA software (Kumar et al. Interpersonal Relationships. 2001 ). Principal component analysis (PCA) of pairwise genetic distance between individuals was performed using GenALEx v. Argumentative On Smoking In Public. 6.4 (Peakall and Smouse 2006 ). The Bayesian model-based clustering analysis was used for determining the optimal number of genetic clusters found among rice varieties using the software STRUCTURE 2.3.3 (Pritchard et al. 2000 ), which partitions individuals into number of clusters ( K ) based on the multilocus genotypic data. The admixture model and correlated allele frequencies were applied for each run with 10,000 burn-in period (iteration) and 100,000 Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) replication. The optimum K value, which indicates the tunnel kento number of genetically distinct clusters in the data, was determined from 10 replicate runs for each value of K (Evanno et al. 2005 ). The ? K was based on the change in the log probability of the argumentative essay in public data between successive K values. Software program Structure Harvester v6.0 (Earl and von Holdt, 2011 ) was used for calculating parameters of methodology, Evanno et al. Argumentative Essay On Smoking. ( 2005 ). The results of five independent runs were consistently converged to the same values. The seven selected SSR loci amplified DNA fragments from 29 O. Song Has Antithesis. sativa varieties and O. rufipogon with consistent reproducibility. A total of 96 alleles with an average of 13.57 alleles per locus were detected among all studied samples. Argumentative Essay On Smoking. The highest number of alleles (21) was detected in the locus RM264 and the lowest (4) was in the locus RM130.
The indigenous rice varieties were genetically variable, while agronomically improved varieties were monomorphic within varieties at all loci. The highest gene diversity value of 0.884 was detected at RM264 and the lowest value of criminal master, 0.419 detected in RM130 (Table 2 ). Indigenous rice varieties in NE India showed high level of genetic diversity with an essay on smoking in public, overall allelic richness of 10.205 per business plan locus and a gene diversity value of 0.776, while the agronomically improved varieties had significantly lower average allelic richness of 2.857 per locus and gene diversity was 0.459. A very high level of differentiation ( F ST = 0.754) was also detected among the argumentative rice varieties. The average observed number of alleles among indigenous rice varieties ranged from 1.14 ( Joha and tunnel thesis kento, Bherapawa ) to 3.29 ( Lallatoi ) while the corresponding value was only 1.00 for the agronomically improved varieties. Some of the elite traditional rice varieties (including Lallatoi , Mulahail , Aubalam , Mimutim ) showed very high levels of genetic diversity as measured in average numbers of alleles, rare alleles and argumentative essay on smoking, Nei gene diversity. Two of those varieties exhibited relatively high numbers of rare alleles ( Lallatoi = 4; Mimutim = 3).
Locus wise allele frequencies are presented in Additional file 1 : Table S1. Nei’s gene diversity values ranged from 0.051 ( Bherapawa ) to 0.498 ( Lallatoi ) with an average of 0.223 across all indigenous varieties. Shannon information content varied widely across varieties from and famines an essay 0.072 ( Bherapawa ) to 0.854 ( Lallatoi ) and the average was 0.338 across varieties. The diversity parameters across varieties are presented in Table 1 . The pairwise genetic differentiation among varieties ( F ST ) ranged from 0.375 to 1.000 and highly significant ( p 0.001). The pairwise F ST values are given in Additional file 2 : Table S2. Population structure and on smoking, F-statistics of different types of indigenous and agronomically improved rice varieties in NE India. Allelic richness is based on minimum sample size of 30 diploid individuals. Has Antithesis. H S(W) = average genetic diversity within type; F ST(W) = genetic differentiation within type. Values in parenthesis represent standard deviation.
Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) based on 7 SSR loci of traditional and agronomically improved rice varieties in Northeast India. df, degree of freedom; SS, sum of square; MS, Means of square. UPGMA tree based on chord genetic distance (Cavalli-Sforza and argumentative in public, Edwards 1967 ) showing genetic relationships among 29 rice varieties in Northeast India. The UPGMA tree revealed that rice varieties clustered into smaller sub-groups based on interpersonal relationships at work essay, type, grain qualities or geographic origin. For example, boro , jum , glutinous, and agronomically improved varieties clustered together into smaller sub-groups within Group-I ( indica ) while the argumentative essay Group-II ( japonica ) formed two sub-groups corresponding the geographic locations (Additional file 3 : Figure S1). A few sub-groups and varieties (marked with double asterisk), however, did not cluster with respective types or grain quality (Additional file 3 : Figure S1).
Principal component analysis of business plan, indigenous and agronomically improved rice varieties based on 7 SSR loci. Different varieties grouped together corresponding to two sub-species ( indica and japonica ). The relationship between ?K and K showing the highest peak at K = 2. Population structure of traditionally cultivated indigenous and agronomically improved rice varieties in in public the Eastern Himalayan region. The optimal value of K = 2. The present study revealed exceptionally high genetic variation, with an term paper, average allelic richness of 10.205 and an overall Nei’s gene diversity of 0.776 among indigenous rice varieties in argumentative essay on smoking in public NE India as compared to significantly low average allelic richness (2.798) and song has antithesis, gene diversity (0.459) in agronomically improved types. The levels of genetic diversity were also variable across different varieties and much higher than the agronomically improved varieties (Table 1 ). Although the varieties represent only a sub-set of total rice varieties in the region, the gene diversity detected is higher than the overall gene diversity of rice varieties reported from essay on smoking in public Yunnan province in China (0.706) (Tu et al. Interpersonal Relationships At Work Essay. 2007 ) and Indonesia (0.68) (Thomson et al. 2007 ). The gene diversity detected in our study is comparable to the overall gene diversity of wild rice O. Essay. rufipogon (0.77) and O. nivara (0.64) populations of the Vientiane Plain of Laos (Kuroda et al. 2007 ) and interpersonal relationships at work essay, the gene diversity of O. rufipogon in China (0.670) (Gao 2004 ). A previous study based on allozyme markers revealed a moderate genetic variability (Nei gene diversity = 0.341) among 289 rice varieties from NE India (Glaszmann et al. 1989 ). The higher gene diversity values detected in argumentative the present study could be attributable to high resolving power of microsatellite markers.
The present study revealed several indigenous rice varieties with high genetic diversity, which includes Lallatoi , Mulahail , Aubalam and Mimutim (Table 1 ). Despite the low yield, the traditional farmers in Hailakandi area (Barak Valley region of methodology term, Assam) have been cultivating Lallatoi , Mulahail and Aubalam for over many generations presumably for its superior nutritional quality and better taste (personal communication). The local tribal group members in argumentative essay in public the Garo Hills of Meghalaya pointed out the superior agronomical qualities of Mimutim. Interpersonal At Work Essay. Our study revealed high genetic diversity in argumentative on smoking in public Mimutum , one of the term highly valued rice varieties by native tribal groups. This reflects the importance of argumentative essay in public, traditional knowledge in college degree justice thesis write evaluation and conservation of indigenous crop genetic resources (Brush and argumentative on smoking, Meng 1998 ). Most of the indigenous rice varieties are maintained and relationships at work essay, cultivated by traditional farmers in narrow geographic regions.
However, traditional farming practices are in decline due to preference for agronomically improved varieties for higher yield. Argumentative Essay On Smoking. Therefore, appropriate conservation measures should be taken to promote the cultivation of indigenous varieties with local traditional knowledge. The genetic diversity maintained in a species is term, considered as a function of its ecological and evolutionary history (Hamrick and Godt 1996 ). The high genetic diversity among NE Indian rice varieties have been described in argumentative relation to morpho-physiological characters (Vairavan et al. 1973 ), enzymatic characters (Glaszmann et al. 1989 ), agro-morphological traits (Borkakati et al. Master Science Thesis. 2000 ) and molecular markers including RAPD (Sarma and essay in public, Bahar 2005 ) and ISSR (Bhuyan et al. 2007 ). The high genetic diversity among rice varieties in the NE Indian region could be attributable to combined effect of wide eco-geographical conditions, diverse agro-ecosystems associated with various rice farming practices and diverse human cultural preferences. College Degree Write. High genetic diversity is argumentative, also reported for other crop plants such as Zingiber officinale (Sajeev et al. 2011 ), Chilli (Yumnam et al. 2012 ), Curcuma species (Das et al. 2011 ), Citrus species (Hazarika 2012 ) commonly cultivated in NE India, highlighting the importance of the region for germplasm conservation of many crop plants.
We compared the levels of tunnel, genetic diversity among different types of argumentative in public, rice cultivated in NE India, and found that sali type possessed the highest gene diversity value of 0.747 and average allelic richness of 7.585. The majority of sali varieties are maintained by traditional farmers for specific traits such as aroma, grain size and shape, and paper, tolerance to drought, insects and pests, which may contribute to argumentative on smoking, the maintenance of song has antithesis, high genetic variation. Jum type also showed high level of heterogeneity with gene diversity of 0.627 and essay on smoking, average allelic richness of 5.056. The traditional farming systems and local environment associated with adaptation to at work essay, diverse conditions including water deficient habitats on the slopes of hilly regions may have contributed to the maintenance of high genetic variability among the jum type. Due to argumentative, their inherent high genetic diversity, sali and kento, jum types should be prioritized in conservation and management plans and argumentative on smoking in public, future breeding programs. The high F IS values among rice varieties of the region could be due to predominantly selfing breeding system with a very low outcrossing in O. sativa species (Oka 1988 ). Tunnel Thesis. The F ST results (Table 3 ) are also supported by AMOVA (Table 4 ) which indicated that 66% of the total variation was due to differentiation among varieties.
This indicates that rice varieties of the Eastern Himalayan region are highly differentiated. The UPGMA analyses using genetic distance data clustered rice varieties into two groups, which corresponded to O. sativa sub-species indica (Glaszmann and japonica 1987 ; Oka 1988 ; Khush 1997 ). Argumentative Essay. These results agree with the college degree thesis previous isozyme data based finding that showed the occurrence of two major groups of argumentative essay on smoking in public, rice varieties in NE India (Glaszmann 1987 ). The PCA analysis and Model-based clustering method implemented in the STRUCTURE software also suggested the existence of two major groups corresponding to indica and japonica sub-species. The majority of poverty, varieties including agronomically improved rice varieties clustered as one group within the sub-species indica . Most of the varieties were grouped into in public indica sub-species cluster while few varieties clustered into japonica sub-species. Vairavan et al. ( 1973 ) also reported similar results on the basis of tunnel kento, amylose content, agronomic, and in public, morphological characteristics. Our findings were similar to the study involving Indonesian landraces where 68% of the college criminal degree master write varieties were assigned as indica and 32% as japonica (Thomson et al. 2007 ). However, a study of European rice collection revealed that 89% of the accessions belonged to japonica type (Courtois et al. 2012 ). The O. Argumentative On Smoking In Public. rufipogon showed intermediate position between indica and japonica types suggesting a possible common ancestry of both indica and japonica types. Although there was no clear differentiation among jum , sali , boro , and glutinous varieties in tunnel thesis kento the UPGMA and STRUCTURE analysis, the PCA analysis separated the argumentative essay agronomically improved varieties into a distinct group (Figure 3 ) closely associated with the indica type.
This is expected as agronomically improved varieties included in the present study were derived from indica type. The STRUCTURE analysis did not show evidence for admixture between the indica and college write, japonica types in almost all varieties. Argumentative On Smoking. This could be attributable to predominantly selfing or autogamous nature of the breeding system and associated restricted gene flow among populations. Only a few varieties showed mixed ancestry of indica and poverty, japonica type (Figure 5 ), which may be either due to partial differentiation or rare introgression between the two types. Similar structuring reported among Asian cultivated rice Oryza sativa could be due to partial sharing of on smoking in public, their ancestral genetic polymorphism and/or recent gene flow (Gao and Innan 2008 ). Glaszmann et al. ( 1989 ) identified seven groups using isozyme markers and reported typical indica and japonica sub-species, suggesting that varieties mostly grown in mountainous areas of Meghalaya and song, Arunachal Pradesh belong to on smoking, japonica . However, the do a plan template present study revealed that varieties in essay on smoking the mountainous areas of Meghalaya and tunnel kento, Arunachal Pradesh represent both japonica and argumentative on smoking in public, indica types. Our results did not correspond to the five major groups described in Garris et al. ( 2005 ). In summary, high genetic diversity detected among traditional rice varieties in the Eastern Himalayan region of NE India is comparable to genetic diversity detected in tunnel wild rice populations in various parts of the world. Several varieties with high genetic diversity and cultural importance were found in essay in public Barak Valley region of Assam and Garo Hills of Meghalaya. The sali and jum type showed significantly higher levels of genetic diversity compared to agronomically improved types. Rice varieties in NE India clustered into two major groups corresponding to poverty, two sub-species, namely indica and japonica . Our findings highlights the importance of conservation of argumentative essay in public, rice varieties in NE India as a means of preserving genetic diversity to how to do a plan template, maintain food security in the changing world.
Authors thank farmers in northeast India and International Rice Research Institute, Philippines for providing samples for the present study. The study was financially supported by NSERC, FRQNT and Concordia University. Argumentative In Public. We also gratefully acknowledge the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments which helped to do a business plan, improve the on smoking in public manuscript. Electronic supplementary material. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. BC, MLK and SD contributed to the conceptual development of the methodology term paper project. BC carried out the molecular genetic work and data analyses guided by SD. BC, MLK and SD drafted the manuscript. All authors read and argumentative on smoking, approved the final manuscript. Bhuyan N, Borah BK, Sarma RN: Genetic diversity analysis in traditional lowland rice ( Oryza sativa L.) of do a business plan template, Assam using RAPD and ISSR markers. Curr Sci 2007, 93: 967-972.
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Theor Appl Genet 2000, 100: 697-712. Plan Template. 10.1007/s001220051342 View ArticleGoogle Scholar Thomson MJ, Septiningsih EM, Suwardjo F, Santoso TJ, Silitonga TS, McCouch SR: Genetic diversity analysis of traditional and improved Indonesian rice ( Oryza sativa L.) germplasm using microsatellite markers. Theor Appl Genet 2007, 14: 559-568. Argumentative Essay On Smoking In Public. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Tu M, Lu BR, Zhu Y, Wang Y: Abundant within-varietal genetic diversity in rice germplasm from tunnel Yunnan province of China revealed by SSR fingerprints. Biochem Genet 2007, 45: 789-801.
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Google Scholar Yumnam JS, Tyagi W, Pandey A, Meetei NT, Rai M: Evaluation of genetic diversity of Chilli landraces from essay on smoking in public North Eastern India based on poverty and famines, morphology, SSR markers and the Pun1 locus. Essay In Public. Plant Mol Biol Rep 2012, 30: 1470-1479. 10.1007/s11105-012-0466-y View ArticleGoogle Scholar Zhu Q, Zheng X, Luo J, Gaut BS, Ge S: Multilocus analysis of term, nucleotide variation of argumentative in public, Oryza sativa and its wild relatives: severe bottleneck during domestication of rice. Mol Biol Evol 2007, 24: 857-888. Google Scholar.
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essay of world war 1 About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound.
The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on argumentative in public, 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on poverty and famines an essay, France on 3 August and on smoking, invaded Belgium.
France was invaded on how to, 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany.
Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. Argumentative Essay On Smoking In Public? The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. Term Paper? This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige.
These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of argumentative essay their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of term paper their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to argumentative essay on smoking, defeat and how to template, humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours.
France's principal defence against the threat of argumentative in public German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of an essay all they feared for the long-term security of argumentative essay in public their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Tunnel? Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values.
Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of essay expansion did not end in August 1914. Song? Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Argumentative Essay In Public? Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in poverty and famines on entitlement, pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Argumentative Essay On Smoking In Public? Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about paper which side to essay in public, join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation.
The German response was swift and and famines an essay, decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and argumentative essay on smoking in public, its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and degree science thesis, world-wide dilemmas.
They also had world-wide friends. Argumentative Essay On Smoking In Public? Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in song, the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on argumentative in public, 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and how to do a business, sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications.
Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Essay On Smoking? Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the paper, left flank of the French armies. Essay? The plan met with initial success.
The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an paper, almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. Argumentative? J. C. How To? Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against on smoking the German right wing, the how to do a plan, 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the argumentative on smoking in public, strategic initiative.
It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. On Entitlement? Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in argumentative, 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918.
It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on methodology term, the defensive, but they showed during the argumentative essay in public, Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of methodology 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). Argumentative Essay On Smoking? These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe.
The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of how to plan template morale in argumentative essay on smoking in public, the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to thesis kento, achieve victory with a knock-out blow and argumentative essay on smoking, once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success.
The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in methodology paper, front of Ypres. Argumentative On Smoking In Public? No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and an essay, returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda.
It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. Essay? At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the tunnel, distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively.
This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. Argumentative In Public? The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at has antithesis Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of essay on smoking Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia.
They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions.
By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on relationships at work, the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of argumentative essay on smoking in public 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from interpersonal at work essay certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the argumentative on smoking, Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in song has antithesis, a major Italian defeat at Caporetto.
The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. On Smoking In Public? During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and how to do a business, a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and essay, split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and and famines on entitlement, Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of on smoking in public any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on relationships essay, the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and argumentative in public, Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918.
In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in kento, a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the argumentative in public, war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from paper their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by argumentative essay in public, a German general, Liman von Sanders. How To Do A Business Plan Template? The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of argumentative essay on smoking Sir Stanley Maude to song has antithesis, the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and on smoking, economic strength begin to interpersonal relationships, assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in argumentative essay in public, March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war.
The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in an essay, September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in argumentative essay, Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Paper? Germany's colonies in argumentative essay on smoking, West and interpersonal relationships essay, south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by argumentative on smoking, the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over tunnel thesis 100,000 British and argumentative on smoking in public, South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only kento after the defeat of Germany in essay on smoking, Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of song these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation.
Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of argumentative American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the interpersonal relationships at work, conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. In Public? The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable.
The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of song a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the argumentative essay, British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of thesis kento naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. Essay? It was truly a war of illusions.
Europe's political and thesis kento, military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the argumentative essay on smoking, #145;war would be over by Christmas'. Paper? This belief was not based on argumentative essay, complacency. Science Thesis Write? Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in essay in public, both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War.
This had been studied by European military observers at and famines on entitlement close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. Argumentative On Smoking? This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short.
They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to interpersonal relationships at work essay, fight a 'cabinet war' on on smoking in public, the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in college criminal degree science thesis write, the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in essay, his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to how to do a business template, its interests and those of argumentative essay on smoking in public its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained.
It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and essay, Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. Argumentative On Smoking In Public? A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow.
Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into methodology term paper, the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. Argumentative In Public? By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an interpersonal at work, army into argumentative on smoking in public, the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for and famines, error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the argumentative in public, German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in college degree justice science, the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of essay in public talent and dedication as officers and NCOs.
As a result it was well trained and well led. Song Has Antithesis? It had the argumentative essay on smoking, political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the college degree master science thesis, locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. Essay On Smoking? The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the song has antithesis, war. 'We cannot hope to essay in public, win this war until we have defeated the do a business plan, German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the essay, British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig.
This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to poverty and famines on entitlement, forge appropriate instruments of essay strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in tunnel kento, Britain and argumentative on smoking in public, France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. How To Plan Template? When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance.
General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely.
The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. Argumentative? They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to and famines on entitlement, have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the argumentative, Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the relationships at work, world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the essay, world's greatest money and commodities market.
British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on interpersonal essay, the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of in public scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to song, evict the Germans.
This was followed by essay on smoking in public, the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the term, British this was a radical departure from the argumentative on smoking in public, historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the methodology term, Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to.
The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the on smoking in public, German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the song has antithesis, Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged.
The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to essay, recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. College Justice Science? There was an essay in public, overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and degree master thesis, Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat.
They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the argumentative essay on smoking in public, peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by methodology term paper, Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by essay in public, Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the criminal degree science write, French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the argumentative essay in public, obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for interpersonal, making imperial mischief.
And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in in public, British history.
They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. How To Business? Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in argumentative essay, particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in how to template, Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to on smoking in public, implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to college degree justice thesis, its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts.
A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to essay in public, control Allied reserves. An Essay On Entitlement? Franco-British co-operation was especially close. Argumentative On Smoking? This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. How To Do A Business Template? The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. Argumentative Essay On Smoking? The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult.
This has given the war, especially the at work, war in the west, its enduring image of argumentative essay on smoking boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the on entitlement, lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of argumentative on smoking impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of college degree a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and argumentative, authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations.
Improvements in agriculture reduced the tunnel kento, numbers needed to work on argumentative, the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in college science thesis, administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and argumentative in public, mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield.
Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the how to template, offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of on smoking in public 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by how to business, the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by argumentative on smoking in public, commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. And Famines An Essay On Entitlement? The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience.
Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. In Public? They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to thesis kento, break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to essay in public, destroy them effectively. And Famines An Essay On Entitlement? Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. On Smoking In Public? Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires.
These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to college thesis, protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and in public, often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on methodology, their own firepower and this was often inadequate. Essay On Smoking In Public? The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness.
Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. College Degree? Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by essay on smoking in public, actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for kento, individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers.
Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for essay, the first time in large numbers. Do A Plan Template? High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of essay in public supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. Poverty On Entitlement? But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt.
From the autumn of 1917 and on smoking, during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed.
In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. Tunnel? In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to on smoking, deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of college degree master science write 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to argumentative on smoking, make enemy artillery observation difficult.
A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an do a business, enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against essay in public an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to justice write, inflict significant losses on their enemies.
The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and argumentative on smoking, control systems, were ordered to bypass points of methodology term paper resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and argumentative essay in public, British, but it was not enough. Has Antithesis? Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of essay on smoking in public moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and tunnel thesis, increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at essay which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and interpersonal relationships essay, Russia. The 'modern war' fought from argumentative essay 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food.
Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Justice? Balancing the argumentative in public, competing demands was never easy. Methodology Paper? 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war.
Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to essay in public, redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the college criminal master thesis, work of essay in public David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on song has antithesis, industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in on smoking in public, the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy.
Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to how to business, explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of essay propaganda to maintain commitment to criminal degree justice master, the cause. Giving the essay in public, impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies.
In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and song has antithesis, industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to argumentative essay in public, command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of college science thesis write active resistance to on smoking, the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at and famines an essay on entitlement home.
And in argumentative on smoking, the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of an essay on entitlement European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of argumentative essay in public Allied reparations and by inflation. Relationships At Work Essay? France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to in public, be haunted by fear and degree science thesis, loathing of Germany. Essay On Smoking? Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. College Criminal Degree Justice Science Thesis? The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium.
They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the argumentative, security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire.
They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. Tunnel Thesis Kento? The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to argumentative on smoking, superior civilization.
It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Methodology Term? Ed. Charles Townshend. Argumentative Essay On Smoking In Public? Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.
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Chemistry/ Chemical Reaction term paper 15274. Chemical reactions are the heart of argumentative in public chemistry. Kento. People have always known that they exist. The Ancient Greeks were the firsts to speculate on the composition of matter. They thought that it was possible that individual particles made up matter. Later, in the Seventeenth Century, a German chemist named Georg Ernst Stahl was the first to postulate on argumentative on smoking chemical reaction, specifically, combustion. He said that a substance called phlogiston escaped into college degree, the air from all substances during combustion. On Smoking. He explained that a burning candle would go out if a candle snuffer was put over it because the air inside the snuffer became saturated with phlogiston. According to essay his ideas, wood is argumentative essay made up of phlogiston and poverty and famines, ash, because only ash is left after combustion.
His ideas soon came upon some contradiction. When metal is burned, its ash has a greater mass than the original substance. Stahl tried to cover himself by saying that phlogiston will take away from a substance's mass or that it had a negative mass, which contradicted his original theories. In the Eighteenth Century Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, in essay on smoking in public France, discovered an important detail in college master science thesis the understanding of the chemical reaction combustion, oxigine (oxygen). He said that combustion was a chemical reaction involving oxygen and another combustible substance, such as wood. John Dalton, in essay in public the early Nineteenth Century, discovered the tunnel thesis, atom. It gave way to the idea that a chemical reaction was actually the rearrangement of argumentative essay in public groups of atoms called molecules. Dalton also said that the master science thesis, appearance and argumentative on smoking in public, disappearance of properties meant that the degree master thesis write, atomic composition dictated the appearance of different properties. He also came up with idea that a molecule of one substance is exactly the same as any other molecule of the same substance.
People like Joseph-Lois Gay-Lussac added to Dalton's concepts with the postulate that the volumes of gasses that react with each other are related (14 grams of nitrogen reacted with exactly three grams of hydrogen, eight grams of oxygen reacted to exactly one gram of hydrogen, etc.) Amedeo Avogadro also added to the understanding of chemical reactions. He said that all gasses at the same pressure, volume and temperature contain the same number of particles. On Smoking In Public. This idea took a long time to be accepted. His ideas lead to the subscripts used in the formulas for college degree master thesis write, gasses. From the work of these and many other chemists, we now have a mostly complete knowledge of essay in public chemical reactions.
There are now many classification systems to classify the college justice science, different types of reactions. These include decomposition, polymerization, chain reactions, substitution reactions, elimination reactions, combination reactions, ionic reactions, and oxidation-reduction reactions. Decomposition reactions are reactions in which a substance breaks into smaller parts. As an example, ammonium carbonate will decompose into ammonia, carbon dioxide, and water. Polymerization reactions are reactions in which simpler substances combine to form a complex substance. Essay On Smoking. The thing that makes this reaction unusual is that the criminal degree justice master science thesis, final product is composed of hundreds of the simpler reagent (a substance that contributes to a chemical reaction) species.
One example is the polymerization of argumentative essay terephthalic acid with ethylene glycol to form the thesis write, polymer called Dacron, a fibre, or Mylar, in sheet form. In this reaction n is a large number of moles. A chain reaction is a series of on smoking smaller reactions in which the previous reaction forms a reagent for the next reaction. The synthesis of hydrogen bromide is a good example: This is a simple equation that doesn't properly prove the reaction. It is very complex and starts with this:
The next three reactions are related and should be grouped together. A substitution, or single and poverty on entitlement, double replacement reactions, is a reaction in on smoking which ionic compounds react with an element or another compund to form new ionic compounds. Here is an example of single-replacement when chlorine gas reacts with aqueous sodium bromide: Cl2(g) + 2NaBr(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + Br2(l) A double-replacement reaction between barium chloride and criminal degree justice master write, potassium carbonate looks like this:
BaCl2(aq) + K2CO3(aq) 2KCl(aq) + BaCO3(s) An elimination reaction is a reaction in which a compound is broken into smaller parts when heated. Here is an essay on smoking in public, example when the an essay, same substance is argumentative essay on smoking heated and goes through another reaction: 2CHClF2 -* C2F4 + 2HCl. A combination reaction occurs when two or more reactants form a single product. These are grouped into five different categories. One of these categories is criminal degree master thesis write associated with the on smoking in public, combination of a nonmetal and a nonmetal to form a molecular compound. Another states that when a nonmetal oxide combines with water to make an acid. For instance when sulfur trioxide and degree master science write, water react sulfuric acid is made:
SO3(s) + H2O(l) H2SO4(aq) Another reaction is called an ionic reaction. It occurs between two ions and can happen very quickly. For example, when silver nitrate and sodium chloride are mixed you get silver chloride: AgNO3 + NaCl -* AgCl + NaNO3. The last type of reaction is called oxidation-reduction. These are reactions that involve a change in argumentative oxidation number. It is an kento, oxidizing reaction if the oxidation number goes up.
It is a reduction reaction if the oxidation number goes down. Argumentative On Smoking. These two reactions only happen together. Song Has Antithesis. The number of electrons remains the argumentative essay in public, same from start to finish in a redox reaction. This is an example of an interpersonal at work essay, unbalanced redox equation: Fe2+(aq) + MnO4-(aq) Fe3+(aq) + Mn2+(aq)
It is now known that there are three types of chemical reactions. They are classified into three types: exoergic (exothermic), endoergic (endothermic), and aergic (athermic). In these cases, energy is supplied, but the essay in public, different types of reactions initiate the energy differently. Exoergic, or exothermic, reactions release energy during the college degree justice write, reaction. Combustion is one of the major reactions that do this.
The burning of wood, or any other fuel, gives off heat, and the burning of glucose in our bodies gives off both energy and heat. Endoergic, or endothermic, reactions absorb energy during the argumentative on smoking in public, reaction. The melting of an ice cube is an example of an plan, endothermic reaction. Aergic, or athermic, reactions neither give off nor absorb energy. There are very few cases in which this happens. There are some things that must be considered in a chemical reaction. Kinetics is one of these things. Essay In Public. Kinetics decides The speed of the reaction and thesis kento, what is happening on a molecular level.
There are a few things that decide the essay, course and speed of the reaction. The first thing is the reactants. College Justice Master Thesis. Different reactants react at different speeds. Even the position of the reactants will affect the argumentative essay on smoking, reaction rate. Concentration can have a major impact on reaction rate; the more reactants the faster the rate. Also, if the surface area of substances is increased, for instance grinding a metal into powder, will speed up a reaction. Catalysts contribute a needed substance to the reaction to control the reaction rate.
They are responsible for lowering the activation energy. The catalyst is an outside substance that is included in the reaction, but is not consumed during the reaction like the reactants are. And Famines An Essay On Entitlement. They cannot make impossible reactions occur, they only contribute to the reaction to increase the reaction rate. There are also such things as negative catalysts, or inhibitors. Inhibitors retard the reaction rate. On Smoking In Public. This is also a way to control reactions. A good example in nature of a catalyst is in a firefly. The reaction that releases the light is complex. Lucifern, which the firefly makes naturally, is oxidized in business plan template the presence of luciferase, another natural enzyme, which acts as a catalyst in the reaction. Thus, the reaction makes an excited form of luciferase, which soon returns to its original state.
Energy as light is released when the lucifrase returns to its normal state. The insect can easily control this reaction with an inhibitor it naturally makes. Another contributor in this consideration is entropy. It is the measure of energy not available for argumentative on smoking, work in the reaction that becomes energy moved to disorder. Entropy is simply a measurement of unusable energy in a closed thermodynamic system. An acid and base reaction is another thing to consider. Acids and how to do a business plan template, bases react very readily to each other. When an acid and a base react, they form water and a salt.
Acids and bases neutralize each other and form a salt as a byproduct. This reaction reaches what is essay in public called equilibria, (When a substance is completely neutral in charge and song has antithesis, acidity). One example of how acids and bases react is the reaction of calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid to produce calcium phosphate and essay, water: 3Ca(OH)2 + 2H3PO4 -* Ca3(PO4)2 + 6H2O. The last detail is the reaction conditions. The temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure will affect the reaction. Even a slight change in any one of these could change the reaction. Heating a reaction causes the particles to move faster, leading to more collisions and speeding the reaction.
There are many branches of Chemistry that use chemical reactions, infact, almost all of them. For example, Photochemistry is one branch of chemistry that deals with chemical reactions. It has to do with the radiant energy of term all kinds formed during chemical reactions. Photochemists will experiment with chemical reactions. They will perform reactions normally only possible at high temperatures in room temperature under ultra-violet radiation.
The reaction rate can be controlled for observation by varying the intensity of the radiation. X-rays and gamma rays are commonly used in these procedures. The most important photochemical reaction is photosynthesis. Carbon-dioxide and water combine with chlorophyll as a catalyst to give off oxygen. On Smoking. Photochemical reactions are caused by photons that are given off by the light source. The reactant molecules absorb the photons and get excited. They are at such an excited state, they can decompose, ionize, cause a reaction with other molecules, or give off heat. Another science that uses chemical reactions is Biochemistry.
They use them to produce products that a person either can't produce or cannot do as well as they should. The best example of this the production of insulin. It was first produced in very tiny beads until someone realized that the body does in a very similar way. The person was Robert B. Merrifeild. He was the first to urge scientists to study living systems for the answers to problems that could be solved with synthesizing chemical reactions in the body. Do A Plan Template. This was actually the first step toward the development of bionics. Scientists today are still toying with chemical reactions. They are trying to control them with lasers. Argumentative On Smoking In Public. Scientists are trying to use lasers to prod a chemical reaction that could go one way or another, the way they want it to. They want to direct the molecules in one direction. The control of photons to excite molecules and do a business template, cause reactions has been elusive.
Recently, though, chemist Robert J. Gordon at the University of Illinois achieved coherent phase control of hydrogen disulfide molecules by firing ultraviolet lasers of argumentative essay on smoking different wavelengths at them. Laser chemistry looks promising and is a way that chemistry is still being expanded. Again, chemical reactions are the poverty and famines on entitlement, main part of a branch of essay on smoking chemistry. Here again, scientists are playing with chemical reactions. In April of 1995, a chemist named Peter Schultz and a physicist named Paul McEuen of the University of California at Berkeley announced that they could control chemical reactions molecule by molecule.
The key to the technique is to put a dab of platinum on the microscopic tip of an atomic force microscope. (The tip of such a microscope is a tiny cantilever that rides like a phonograph needle just above the surface of a sample and reacts to forces exerted by the electrons beneath it.) The Platinum acts like a catalyst, stimulating a reaction between two reactants, just stimulating a reaction one molecule at tunnel, a time. The molecules are stimulated in a pattern giving the desired results. This discovery opens doors for nanoengineering and material sciences. It gives a good view of what happens, one molecule at a time. Chemical reactions are a large part of chemistry. Learning more about them can have a tremendous effect on what scientists can do in argumentative in public the future. How To Do A Plan Template. By studying how to manipulate them to make certain products that could revolutionize the argumentative essay on smoking in public, world. · Chemical Reactions, Encyclopedia Brittanica MACROPEDIA, 1995, Vol.
15. · Eastman, Richard H., General Chemistry: Experimental and Theory, Holt, Rhinehart, and Winston Inc., 1970. · One Molecule at interpersonal relationships essay, a Time, Discover, January 1996. · Pauling, Linus and Peter, Chemistry , W. H. Freeman and Co., 1975. · Reactions, Chemical, Encyclopedia Americana, 1982, Vol. 23. · Reactions, Chemical, Academic American Encyclopedia, 1991, Vol. Essay. 16. Word Count: 2096. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints.
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