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Role of plant glyoxylate reductases during stress: a hypothesis. Molecular modelling suggests that a group of scoring, proteins in courses plants known as the ?-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases, or the hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase superfamily, includes enzymes that reduce succinic semialdehyde and glyoxylate to ?-hydroxybutyrate and glycolate respectively. Recent biochemical and expression studies reveal that NADPH-dependent cytosolic (termed GLYR1) and online essay scoring, plastidial (termed GLYR2) isoforms of succinic semialdehyde/glyoxylate reductase exist in working with courses Arabidopsis . Essay. Succinic semialdehyde and glyoxylate are typically generated in leaves via two distinct metabolic pathways, ?-aminobutyrate and glycolate respectively. In the present review, it is proposed that the GLYRs function in the detoxification of both aldehydes during stress and a dissertation book safety, contribute to redox balance. Pearson Online Essay. Outstanding questions are highlighted in a scheme for the subcellular organization of the detoxification mechanism in Arabidopsis . aldehyde detoxification glyoxylate reductase ?-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase redox balance succinic semialdehyde reductase. The occurrence of distinct NADPH-dependent GLYR (glyoxylate reductase) isoforms and activity in the cytosol and chloroplasts of spinach and pea has been documented [1]. Recent research has indicated that Arabidopsis cytosolic GLYR1 and plastidial GLYR2 reduce both glyoxylate and SSA (succinic semialdehyde) to glyoxylate and GHB (?-hydroxybutyrate) respectively [2–4]. In vitro measurements of recombinant GLYR1 and GLYR2 activities revealed that glyoxylate is portal 2 ending thesis, preferred over SSA as a substrate, the kinetic mechanism is ordered Bi Bi, involving the complexation of NADPH before glyoxylate or SSA, and NADP is a competitive inhibitor with respect to NADPH. Thus plant GLYRs act as an AKR (aldo-keto reductase), but there is pearson online scoring, no significant homology with either mammalian and bacterial NADPH-SSA reductase, or other members of the pro con networking AKR superfamily. There is, however, some sequence identity with known ?-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases, such as tartronate semialdehyde reductase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, which are members of the HIBADH (hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase) protein family. Furthermore, molecular modelling of GLYR1 via comparison with a well-characterized member of the HIBADH family indicates that a Rossmann fold-like nucleotide-binding site with a three-layer (???) sandwich geometry at the N-terminus, orthogonal bundles at the C-terminus, and essay scoring, amino acid residues at the predicted active site are highly conserved (Figure 1).

Taken together, these observations suggest that plant GLYR enzymes are members of the HIBADH protein family [2,3], but crystallization of the pro con essay proteins and pearson online essay scoring, active-site mutagenesis are necessary to substantiate this hypothesis. ( A ) Crystal structure of TSAR (tartronic semialdehyde reductase) and its substrate analogue tartaric acid (TA) (PDB entry: 1VPD). Portal 2 Ending. ( B ) Predicted structure of GLYR1 generated by the fold-recognition server PHYRE (http://www.sbg.bio.ic.ac.uk/phyre/) using TSAR as a template. ( C and D ) Overlapping positions and identities of the predicted active-site residues for TSAR and GLYR1 respectively. Red, blue and green indicate negative, positive and hydrophobic regions of the residues. Aldehydes such as glyoxylate and SSA can accumulate in plants under stress, and react with DNA, oxidize membrane lipids, modify proteins or influence the transcription of stress-related genes, thereby causing cellular and developmental problems [5,6]. Consequently, enzymes and metabolic pathways that reduce the aldehyde chemical grouping (i.e. H-C=O) in these compounds to its corresponding alcohol are probably essential for essay scoring, maintaining plant health. Glyoxylate and SSA are best known as intermediates in with the metabolism of glycolate and GABA (?-aminobutyrate) respectively. In the present review, we attempt to place the function of online, plant GLYRs within a metabolic context. The first three sections discuss the physiological role of the enzymes during stress, with particular emphasis on the turnover of essay on social networking, pyridine nucleotides and the metabolism of GABA and glycolate. The final section focuses on online essay scoring a hypothetical scheme for the detoxification of SSA and how to write, glyoxylate, and on opportunities for future research. NAD(P) is ubiquitous in the cell, mediates numerous redox reactions, and online essay scoring, influences virtually every metabolic pathway [7–9].

Furthermore, it is involved in the production and consumption of ROS (reactive oxygen species) in working plants, and is therefore a key player in signalling events. ROS production is influenced by NADPH/NADP ratios in chloroplasts and mitochondria and pearson essay, NAD(P)H oxidases are key players in ROS generation at the plasma membrane. ROS consumption partly depends on trustworthy essay glutathione and ascorbate pools, which are fundamentally maintained by online essay NAD(P)H. NAD(P) plays other defensive and signalling roles, such as production of NO and metabolism of reactive aldehydes. NAD(P) pools are plastic in plants and undergo significant changes in response to essay the environment. For example, increasing light causes progressive over-reduction at the reducing side of Photosystem I in pearson online the chloroplast, causing NADP levels to decline and thereby favouring the diversion of electrons to oxygen to produce ROS [10]. Yet the trustworthy friends essay chloroplast stromal redox state seems to be constant in spite of irradiance. Pearson Online. The cytosolic NAD(P) redox states are independent of light, dark or CO 2 availability, yet cytosolic NAD and mitochondrial NAD and NADP are more reduced under photorespiratory conditions [11]. Several other studies indicate that changes in cytosolic and mitochondrial NAD reduction are important in fun high school prompts regulating nitrate reduction and nitrogen assimilation [12–14].

Generation of NADPH in the chloroplast depends on the reduction of NADP via ferredoxin NADP reductase in the light, and by the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway dehydrogenases, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, in online the dark [10,14]. The presence of glucose-6-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenases in peroxisomes implies that these organelles have the capacity to reduce NADP to NADPH for use in antioxidant protection [15]. In the cytosol and mitochondria, NADP-dependent ICDHs (isocitrate dehydrogenases) play a major role in NADPH pool sizes [11,16]. NADP-ICDH activity in mitochondria is higher in photosynthetic than in trustworthy essay heterotrophic tissues, implying an important role during photosynthesis. It has been suggested that mitochondrial NADP-ICDH provides NADPH for redox regulation of the alternative oxidase via thioredoxin [17]. The NADH/NAD ratio in mitochondria is high during photorespiratory conditions due to glycine oxidation via GDC (glycine decarboxylase) activity, which provides more NADH than the TCA cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle; also known as the citric acid cycle) [11,18]. This higher ratio could stimulate the pearson online essay scoring interconversion of NADH and NADP via transhydrogenase activity [11,19], thereby increasing mitochondrial NADPH levels, inhibiting NAD-ICDH in the TCA cycle, and a dissertation book fire safety, causing mitochondrial NADP-ICDH to operate in the reverse direction. Consequently, citrate could be exported from the mitochondrion, whereas 2-oxoglutarate could be imported, entering the pearson reverse NADP-ICDH reaction as 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activity is pro con essay on social networking, probably low during photorespiration.

Thus NADP-ICDH reverse activity might recycle NADPH and 2-oxoglutarate in pearson essay scoring the mitochondrion during photorespiration. Mitochondrial NADP and how to research paper, NAD pools are more oxidized in pearson online scoring the dark [11], and the NADH/NAD ratio is not significantly lower than under non-photorespiratory conditions, which represents oxidation of NADH mainly through the TCA cycle and not through GDC. The ATP-dependent phosphorylation of NAD(H) is catalysed by prompts NADK (NAD kinase). Genes encoding NADKs have been cloned from human, yeast and pearson, bacteria [20–22]. Eukaryotes possess multiple NAD(H)K genes, whereas bacteria apparently have only one. The enzymes are divided into a summary for a research paper, NADKs or NAD(H)Ks depending on online essay scoring their substrate preference for the oxidized and/or reduced forms of NAD [23,24]. Several NADK isoforms are present in plants. In maize, for example, a CaM (calmodulin)-dependent enzyme is found in the cytosol, in the outer membrane of animals courses, mitochondria and in the chloroplast envelope, whereas a CaM-independent form is located in essay the chloroplast stroma [25,26]. In Avena sativa L. seeds, soluble and mitochondrial NADK activities are present in CaM-dependent and -independent forms [27,28]. CaM-dependent activity has also been detected in trustworthy friends essay pea seedlings, Solanum lycopersicum L. var. pimpinellifolium (Juslen) Mill and green bean [29,30].

In Arabidopsis , there are three isoforms: two are cytosolic [ At NADK1 and At NAD(H)K3] and one is plastidial ( At NADK2) [31–34]. Partially purified NADK activity from Arabidopsis displays Ca 2+ /CaM-dependent activity, whereas recombinant At NAK1 and At NADK2 do not, although At NADK2 has some affinity for CaM [31]. One study has reported that recombinant At NADK1 can utilize both NAD and essay, NADH in an ATP-dependent manner, although the substrate specificity constant was not determined [24], whereas another reported that At NADK1 and At NADK2 utilize NAD, but not NADH [31]. At NAD(H)K3 is highly homologous with POS5, a mitochondrial isoform from yeast recently described as an NADK, which prefers NAD(H) as a substrate, but it has negligible amino acid identity with other plant NADKs [23,31]. At NAD(H)K3 can phosphorylate NADH or NAD + in an ATP-dependent manner, but has a 100-fold greater preference for NADH, and its activity is not stimulated by essay CaM [32]. At NADK1 is pearson online essay, induced by oxidative stress, such as ionizing radiation and essay on social networking, paraquat treatment, and by compatible and pearson online, incompatible plant–pathogen interactions [24], and essay on social, NAD(H)K3 is induced by a variety of abiotic stresses and exogenous abscisic acid. NAD(H)K3 apparently plays an important role in cytosolic NADPH levels under abiotic stress [33].

Manipulation of At NADK2 levels affects chloroplastic NADPH levels, and null mutants are stunted, with a pale yellow colour, and are hypersensitive to abiotic stress [34]. SSA IS AN INTERMEDIATE IN GABA METABOLISM. Glutamate can be metabolized via a short metabolic pathway that bypasses the NAD-dependent 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and online scoring, the ADP-dependent succinyl-CoA ligase steps of the TCA cycle and allows the glutamate carbon backbone to enter the cycle as succinate [35,36] (Figure 2). This pathway is found in virtually all organisms from bacteria to humans, underscoring its fundamental nature in metabolism. GABA is a four-carbon non-protein amino acid with the amino group on the ?-carbon, rather than the ?-carbon. The decarboxylation of glutamate is catalysed via a cytosolic Ca 2+ /CaM-dependent GAD (glutamate decarboxylase) with the with courses consumption of pearson scoring, a proton [35]. The catabolism of GABA apparently involves mitochondrial pyruvate- and glyoxylate-dependent, but not 2-oxoglutarate-dependent, GABA-T (GABA transaminase) activities [37–39], resulting in the production of alanine and glycine respectively. GABA-T activity also produces SSA which is quickly oxidized via mitochondrial NAD-dependent SSADH (SSA dehydrogenase) [40–42]. Pro Con Essay. (GAD, GABA-T and pearson online essay scoring, SSADH make up the pathway that is commonly known as the GABA shunt.) The GABA shunt metabolites and enzymes are indicated as blue and orange balloons respectively, and the TCA cycle is shown as black and portal, pink balloons. Glutamate, the precursor to GABA, is supplied predominantly via the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase cycle or the TCA cycle. The polyamine putrescine has been proposed as an alternative GABA precursor, although in planta contribution in mature leaves is online essay, likely to be minor.

There are two branching routes for GABA catabolism via SSA: one to succinate and the TCA cycle and the other to GHB via SSA reductase (a yellow balloon, shown as GLYR in Figure 3), although the products of GHB catabolism in plants are currently unknown. The GABA shunt provides metabolic flexibility to the cell with the provision of glutamate rather than pyruvate carbon for use in school prompts the TCA cycle. Online Essay. The oxidation of glutamate is theoretically less energetically productive than pyruvate, however, because 1 mol each of NADH and ATP are produced at with animals, the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and pearson essay, succinyl-CoA ligase steps respectively, whereas only 1 mol of NADH is pro con, produced at the SSADH step in the GABA shunt. Nevertheless, stresses that restrict the oxidation of NADH, diminish TCA cycle intermediates and/or inhibit TCA cycle enzymes should permit greater flux through the GABA shunt. For example, oxygen deficiency inhibits NADH oxidation via the online mitochondrial electron transport chain, decreases the working courses glutamate level, and pearson online, increases the GABA and alanine levels [43–47]. Furthermore, manipulation of working animals courses, TCA cycle enzymes, such as NAD-dependent ICDH or aconitase, alters GABA shunt activity [48,49], and GABA shunt activity can complement reduced expression of succinyl-CoA ligase [49].

GABA accumulation in plants is essay, a general response to various biotic and abiotic stresses and 2 ending thesis, can involve both biochemical and transcriptional processes [35,36,50]. In some cases, the response of pearson essay, GABA is rapid, often within seconds [51,52], suggesting that activation of cytosolic GAD activity by Ca 2+ /CaM is probably involved. It is known that Ca 2+ influx into the cell is increased by touch [53], cold shock [52], heat shock, salinity, drought and osmotic stress [54], and GABA does accumulate. However, at acidic pH GAD is stimulated independently of Ca 2+ /CaM, and in vivo cytosolic acidification does stimulate GAD activity and GABA production [55,56]. Stresses that disrupt cellular membranes such as wounding, freezing or heat stress, can cause vacuolar contents to be released into the cytosol or inhibit ATPase enzymes which pump protons from the cytosol into the vacuole or apoplast, causing a concomitant decrease in cytosolic pH and stimulation of GAD activity. With. For example, oxygen deficiency is online essay scoring, known to decrease cytosolic pH by 0.3–0.6 pH units and cause GABA to accumulate in soybean, tobacco and Arabidopsis [43,44,47,57]. Transcriptional change in GAD and GABA-T expression can occur in response to low oxygen, water deficit, salinity or Agrobacterium infection [47,58–61]. Evidence is available for pro con essay on social, the reduction of pearson online scoring, SSA and accumulation of GHB in Arabidopsis plants subjected to oxygen deficiency, high light, heat, drought and salinity, and for the recovery of GHB levels in tobacco after the removal of oxygen deficiency [42,44,46,47,50,62] (Figure 3). In many cases, these results have been associated with altered redox levels. Furthermore, ssadh -knockout mutants of Arabidopsis exhibit chlorotic lesions and accumulate GHB and H 2 O 2 [62]. Portal 2 Ending. GLYR isoforms are also implicated in pearson online GHB production because their transcript levels can increase under various stresses, such as cold and heat [46].

GLYR activity is found at all developmental stages and in all tissues, and activity is portal 2 ending thesis, generally higher in vegetative and reproductive organs than in essay roots [2]. SSADH-deficient yeast complemented with Arabidopsis GLYR1 grows on trustworthy friends essay 20 mM GABA as the sole nitrogen source and contains elevated levels of pearson scoring, GHB [45]. These studies link the GABA shunt to redox homoeostasis in the cell and suggest that SSA-dependent GLYR activity potentially occurs in planta , despite the fact that glyoxylate is the preferred substrate in vitro [2]. The subcellular scheme relates recent and hypothetical information about GLYRs and NADKs to pyridine nucleotides and essay prompts, specific intermediates of the GABA and glycolate pathways. There is no consideration of stoichiometry in this scheme. Scoring. Enzymes of the GABA and glycolate pathways, as well as photorespiratory nitrogen metabolism, are shown as orange, pink and brown balloons respectively.

Enzymes associated with aldehyde detoxification and NADPH formation are shown as blue and turquoise balloons respectively. Components whose levels are probably elevated in 2 ending response to stress are shown as yellow boxes, and pearson online essay scoring, potential diffusion pathways are shown as dotted lines. For further discussion and references, please see the text. FR, ferredoxin reductase; GGAT, glutamate:glyoxylate aminotransferase; GK, glycerate kinase; GO, glycolate oxidase; GOGAT, glutamate synthase; GS, glutamine synthetase; HPR, hydroxypyruvate reductase; PGP, phosphoglycolate phosphatase; SGAT, serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase; SHMT, serine hydroxymethyltransferase. GLYOXYLATE IS AN INTERMEDIATE IN GLYCOLATE METABOLISM. Rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase; EC 4.1.1.39) can catalyse the oxygenation of ribulose bisphosphate, resulting in the production of glycolate 2-phosphate, which is metabolized via the glycolate pathway (Figure 3). (This pathway is often referred to collectively as photorespiration.) The rate of oxygenation compared with carboxylation is dependent on the ambient O 2 and CO 2 concentrations, their K m values and the velocity of the overall reaction [63].

Sharkey et al. [64] estimated that, under ambient conditions, the rate of a summary for a research, photorespiratory CO 2 release is approx. Online Essay Scoring. 25% of the rate of net CO 2 assimilation. With rising temperatures, the friends specificity of Rubisco for CO 2 and the relative solubility of O 2 to CO 2 increase, resulting in enhanced photorespiratory rates. This effect is further augmented by a lowered intercellular CO 2 concentration, which occurs upon stomatal closure during drying conditions such as high light and pearson scoring, drought [65], thereby imposing strong carbon loss and fun high essay, possibly leading to the depletion of carbohydrates and accelerated senescence. However, the suppression of essay scoring, photorespiration over the long term results in decreased rates of photosynthetic CO 2 assimilation, poor plant growth and chloroplast aberrations [66,67]. The photorespiratory pathway is compartmentalized across chloroplasts, peroxisomes and mitochondria (Figure 3). Glycolate 2-phosphate is first hydrolysed in the chloroplast to portal glycolate, which is oxidized in the peroxisome to glyoxylate.

The glyoxylate in turn undergoes transamination to pearson online essay scoring glycine [68,69], which is transported to the mitochondrion for conversion into serine via NAD-dependent GDC and serine hydroxymethyltransferase, with the release of CO 2 and NH 3 . Serine returns to the peroxisome where it is transaminated to hydroxypyruvate, which is reduced to glycerate. Glycerate is then phosphorylated in the chloroplast and the resulting glycerate 3-phosphate enters the Calvin cycle. Because of the transamination of glyoxylate to glycine and the large release of NH 3 in the GDC reaction, photorespiratory metabolism is intimately linked to writing book fire leaf nitrogen metabolism [70]. The energy requirements for fixing CO 2 are higher in essay the presence of courses, photorespiratory metabolism (5.375 mol of ATP and 3.5 mol of NADPH per CO 2 ), than in its absence (3 mol of ATP and online scoring, 2 mol of NADPH per CO 2 ) [70]. Working Animals. Thus it has been suggested that photorespiration is important for maintaining electron flow to prevent photoinhibition under stress [70]. Photoinhibition occurs when the photochemical processes of photosynthesis do not have enough ADP or NADP to enable continued flow of energy through the electron transport system [71,72]. Electron flow becomes blocked as molecules within the electron transport chain become reduced. Then the electrons of the Photosystem II centre become highly excited as light energy continues to be absorbed; photoinhibition occurs as the excess light energy damages the pearson essay D1 protein.

Photoinhibition is usually temporary because of the turnover rate of the repair mechanisms for the D1 protein. Trustworthy Friends. However, if other molecules within the photochemical system are permanently damaged by pearson online essay excess energy, chlorophyll becomes bleached, a process known as photo-oxidation. The risk of photo-oxidation occurs under conditions such as salt and drought stresses, wherein internal leaf CO 2 concentration declines as stomata close to prevent water loss, electron consumption by photosynthesis is reduced, and over-reduction of the pro con essay electron transport chain occurs [70]. Photorespiration rises in plants under salt stress, as indicated by pearson a higher CO 2 compensation point [73], higher light-to-dark ratio of pro con essay, CO 2 production [74], higher glycolate oxidase activity, and the formation of specific metabolites such as glycine, serine and glycolate [75]. CO 2 assimilation declines more quickly in heterozygous barley mutants with reduced levels of various photorespiratory enzymes than in the wild-type under moderate drought stress, demonstrating increasing control by photorespiratory enzymes on photosynthesis [76]. Pearson Online. Furthermore, Rubisco and photorespiratory enzyme activities are maintained in Casuarina equisetifolia L. under drought stress as the internal leaf CO 2 concentration decreases, suggesting that photorespiration is likely to increase relative to photosynthesis [77]. Photorespiratory glyoxylate exerts a feedback effect on working with animals courses photosynthesis in heterozygous barley mutated in glutamine synthetase 2, ferrodoxin-glutamate synthase, GDC or serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase [70] (Figure 3). Furthermore, glyoxylate can inhibit the activation of Rubisco in online essay scoring vitro [78], and 2 ending thesis, there is a negative relationship between glyoxylate content in online the leaves of heterozygous glutamine synthetase 2 mutants and the activation state of Rubisco [79]. Glyoxylate is also a reactive aldehyde that can modify lysine and arginine side chains, and form glyoxylated DNA adducts [80,81]. As indicated above, in vitro kinetic studies of recombinant proteins revealed that both cytosolic GLYR1 and plastidial GLYR2 catalyse the essentially irreversible, NADPH-based conversion of glyoxylate into glycolate, and courses, can be regulated by the NADPH/NADP ratio [2–4].

Since the Michaelis constants for the two isoforms are apparently in the physiological range (4.5 and 34 ?M respectively), it is suggested that the enzymes function in the detoxification of glyoxylate in planta , and, in doing so, provide an alternative sink for excess electrons during the recycling of reducing equivalents. There is not yet any information on pearson essay scoring expression of the GLYRs under photorespiratory conditions. HYPOTHETICAL ROLE FOR GLYRs DURING STRESS. Figure 3 summarizes the portal 2 ending information discussed above with respect to detoxification of pearson scoring, GABA-derived SSA and glycolate-derived glyoxylate in Arabidopsis by mechanisms involving the GLYR isoforms. In the portal absence of stress, flux through the GABA pathway should be relatively low, whereas photorespiratory flux would be considerable due to the favourable atmospheric CO 2 /O 2 ratio, and glyoxylate produced might contribute to essay GABA transamination to SSA. In the friends presence of stress, the cellular Ca 2+ or H + concentration could increase, thereby stimulating GAD activity and resulting in elevated GABA levels, and the oxygenation of ribulose bisphosphate would increase due to stomatal closure, probably resulting in glyoxylate accumulation. These responses would probably be associated with increases in NAD(P)H, which would limit the mitochondrial conversion of SSA into succinate via SSADH and glycine into serine via GDC. Based on the subcellular localization of the essay scoring GABA shunt enzymes, it seems likely that GABA produced in the cytosol must be transported into the mitochondrion where it is catabolized to SSA by GABA-T activity. With the limitation of SSADH activity by elevated NADH concentration, SSA probably diffuses to essay the cytosol and pearson online essay scoring, perhaps the chloroplast, where it could be reduced to GHB via GLYR, a process facilitated by elevated NADPH levels. Similarly, some glyoxylate produced in the peroxisome probably diffuses to the cytosol and/or chloroplast to be detoxified by 2 ending thesis GLYR1 and/or GLYR2 respectively. Online Essay Scoring. Thus it is proposed that GLYR activity in plants serves to pro con detoxify aldehydes that are typically generated in two distinct pathways, GABA metabolism and pearson online essay, glycolate metabolism, and thereby contributes to redox balance.

The response of the pyridine nucleotides during stress could be attributed in large part to the biochemical control of trustworthy friends essay, NAD(H)K. In Arabidopsis , the three isoforms of NADK [cytosolic NADK1 and NAD(H)K3, and chloroplast NADK2] are essential for the phosphorylation of NAD(H) and have been linked to the plant stress response. It is clear that NADK2 utilizes NAD only and that NADK3 prefers NADH, but the preference of pearson, NADK1 for NAD and NADH is less certain. Support, although preliminary, exists for activation by trustworthy friends Ca 2+ /CaM of the NADK2 isoform only. Thus further research is pearson scoring, required to provide a better picture of the relative importance and the biochemical control of the three NADK isoforms, particularly in view of the Ca 2+ /CaM activation of GAD, which is located in the cytosol. To test this scheme, various NAD(H)K expression mutants would be helpful in assessing the impact of altered redox balance on GABA metabolism and GLYR activity. Additional experiments could be conducted with recombinant GLYR1 and GLYR2 to confirm whether the enzymes have the capacity to simultaneously reduce both glyoxylate and SSA, while recycling reducing equivalents. There is also a need to utilize/generate single and double knockouts of GLYR1 and GLYR2 in order to establish their physiological functions during stress. For example, the contribution of GLYR1 and GLYR2 to trustworthy friends essay the balance between energy input through photochemistry and pearson, energy utilization through metabolism (i.e. photostasis) [82] could be investigated by determining the levels of GABA/GHB, glyoxylate/glycolate and related amino and organic acids, as well as the redox (including the 2 ending thesis state of Photosystems) and energy balance and photosynthetic efficiency. Pearson Online. If the knockouts are more susceptible to stress than the wild-type, it could be concluded that the writing book safety GLYR isoforms are involved in photostasis and prevent the accumulation of toxic aldehydes. At GLYR2 is localized to the chloroplast; however, its affinity for glyoxylate and SSA is 10-fold lower than that for GLYR1.

Typically, the over-reduction of the chloroplast electron transport chain by NADPH accumulation would probably be alleviated by GLYR2, but transgenic plants in which GLYR1 overexpression is targeted to the cytosol or chloroplast could provide additional protection against photoinhibition and other stresses. If so, GLYR1 overexpression could become a strategy for engineering stress resistance in important crop plants. Work in the authors laboratory in this area is supported by the Natural Sciences and essay scoring, Engineering Research Council of Canada; and the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture Food and essay, Rural Affairs. We gratefully acknowledge the anonymous reviewers of the manuscript for many useful comments and suggestions. Abbreviations: AKR, aldo-keto reductase; CaM, calmodulin; GABA, ?-aminobutyrate; GABA-T, GABA transaminase; GAD, glutamate decarboxylase; GDC, glycine decarboxylase; GHB, ?-hydroxybutyrate; GLYR, glyoxylate reductase; HIBADH, hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase; ICDH, isocitrate dehydrogenase; NADK, NAD kinase; ROS, reactive oxygen species; Rubisco, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase; SSA, succinic semialdehyde; SSADH, SSA dehydrogenase; TCA, tricarboxylic acid.

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Decision theory , Hospital , Management 662 Words | 3 Pages. Literature Review Keith A. Cunningham Grand Canyon University Family Health Promotion NRS-429V Dawn Peters November 07, . 2010 Literature Review A review of online nursing literature was conducted using the Grand Canyon University online library. The literature was reviewed looking for references to health promotion at the primary, secondary, and fun high school essay prompts, tertiary levels. From the review some questions were answered regarding the nurse’s role in promoting health to the public. Health promotion can be defined. Health , Health care , Nurse 2148 Words | 7 Pages. Literature Review : Designing Effective Instruction (4th Ed.) by Gary R. Morrison, Steven M. Ross, Jerrold E. Kemp List of . Exhibits Table 1.1 Overview 1.2 Instructional Design 1.3 Summary of Review 1.4 Journal Article Critique 1.5 References Overview According to pearson essay scoring, Grubb Cox (2005) there are four critical elements that influence the learning environment.

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Antiseptic , Best practice , Health care 2025 Words | 6 Pages. ? Review of Literature Brittany M. Warnke Grand Canyon University: NRS- 429V May 12, 2014 . Review of Literature According to the World Health Organization, “Health promotion is the process of enabling people to pearson essay scoring, increase control over, and to improve, their health” (2014). It is no surprise that a large cause of death in the United States is often a combination of genetic and 2 ending, environmental factors, as well as lifestyle choices (Chiverton, Votava, Tortoretti, 2003). Health promotion. Health , Health care , Illness 1195 Words | 6 Pages. Amazon.com , Computer , Customer 1784 Words | 7 Pages. REVIEW OF LITERATURE The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme is the world's largest early child development . program . Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) is the essay, only major national program that addresses the needs of children under the working courses, age of pearson online essay six years. Because the write research paper, health and nutrition needs of a child cannot be addressed in isolation from pearson those of his or her mother, the working with animals courses, program also extends to adolescent girls, pregnant women and nursing mothers . It was initiated in 1975. Childbirth , Childcare , Day care 969 Words | 3 Pages. ? Stress Associated with Preterm Delivery Donnita Rountree Liberty University Literature . Review Preterm preterm labor can lead to pearson scoring, short and long term health issues for the mother and her infant such as immune system complications, which protects the uterus from infections (Smith, et al., 2011). Although studies are have been inconclusive on 2 ending thesis, how stress effects preterm delivery, studies have shown that stress-related hormones play a role in preterm labors.

African American , Cervix , Childbirth 670 Words | 4 Pages. Literature Review on Homeless families with young children Instructor: James Krewman April 15, 2008 Overview of homelessness . regarding families and children Homelessness isan international social problem but the United States and pearson, other developed nations seem to agree on its definitions; researchers have categorized homelessness as either being literal or precarious. The literal definition seem to refer to the most commonly seen forms of homeless. Meaning, those who are without a home, that. Homelessness , Poverty , Squatting 1085 Words | 3 Pages. aspects includes performance excellence, financial management, resource management, emergency preparedness. This research has made a deep insight in pro con on social networking, . sustainable OM and the matters evolving on this field. There are still some limitations in literature reviews , bibliometric and scoring, citation analysis because of the limited sources taken. Among all the with animals, journals, only 6 articles have made their place in pearson essay scoring, this study, that’s why it was prioritized to have a look at the information given in Table 1. In addition. Ecological economics , Economy , Management 852 Words | 2 Pages.

? Review of Literature Ann Linehan Grand Canyon University: Family Centered Health Promotion 2/16/2014 . Writing A Dissertation Book Safety? Health promotion is online, developing a guidance system to optimize the health and how to write a summary paper, wellness of an pearson online essay, individual, community, or nation. It takes into working courses account and online, aims to balance the physical, spiritual, social, emotional, and pro con essay on social networking, intellectual aspects of the recipient, and assists them in achieving their goals. “Health Promotion is the art and pearson online essay scoring, science of school prompts helping people discover the synergies. Health , Health care , Health care provider 1377 Words | 4 Pages. much debate within the pearson online scoring, peri-operative environment at a regional New South Wales hospital regarding the management and transfusion of 2 ending red blood cells. Pearson Scoring? This is . why the topic has been selected for pro con essay on social, further study. Pearson Online? The purpose of this paper is to review the with courses, literature surrounding the safety of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, which comes under standard seven of the National Safety and Quality in Health Service Standards (ACSQHC, 2012). It will touch on the complications of RBC transfusion, when to transfuse. Blood , Blood transfusion , Blood type 2081 Words | 7 Pages. ? Literature review Definition of marketing strategy There are a lot of authors speak about the marketing strategy, the marketing . Pearson Online Essay? strategy is very important in business, it can lead the firm towards attractively economic opportunities which are adapted to their imagination and know how to provide a potential to help the company grow and earn more profits (Lambin,1997). If we want to have good marketing strategy in portal 2 ending thesis, the firm, we need to understand the strategic situation confronting in an organization.

Competitor analysis , Distribution , Marketing 1203 Words | 4 Pages. Literature review As for pearson online, years hospitality industry is suffering from high staff turnover. The main aim to chose this topic for . the literature review is writing book fire safety, that continuous problem and effect causing to the organization in online, terms of labor shortage especially skilled labor and organization having no control on the staff retention due to which it is essay, become a challenge for hospitality industry especially human resource that how to attract and pearson essay, retain the talented and write a summary for a research, skilled staff (Barron, 2008). Demographic. Employment , Hospitality , Hospitality industry 2261 Words | 6 Pages. Literature Review There are so many things that need to be added or changed to the way that education is to be . taught today. Teachers these days have no clue what they are doing. But then again, most teachers are not caught up with the online essay scoring, new strategies, any new technology that can be incorporated into portal thesis the curriculum, and or just any new way of teaching in general. This article called “Critical Issues in Advancing the pearson online scoring, Special Education Technology Evidence Base”, is basically explaining. Education , Educational psychology , Field Island 1063 Words | 3 Pages.

? Review of Literature Ann Genovese Grand Canyon University: NRS 429 December 22, 2013 Review of . Literature How is health promotion defined? Health promotion is a process of enabling people to increase control over and improve their health (WHO, 2013). People involved in health promotion should consider the meaning of what do they think health means relating to themselves and to others. This will assist with clarifying outcomes and expectations (Edelman Mandle, 2010, p. Paper? 3). Medical terms , Medicine , Nursing 1121 Words | 4 Pages. ? LITERATURE REVIEW NAME: Hong Pham Student Number: 100883930 Course: SOCI 1002 Instructor: Holly Thomas . Online Essay Scoring? Due Date: October 11, 2013 Question 1 How does male and female use Facebook in social interaction in fun high school prompts, social media sites setting? Question 2+ Question 3 A. Haferkamp, N., Eimler, S. C., Papadakis, A., Kruck, J. (2012). Men are from online scoring Mars, women are from Venus? Examining gender differences in write research, self-presentation on social networking sites. Cyberpsychology. Facebook , MySpace , Orkut 1651 Words | 5 Pages.

? Literature Review Understanding CPI has always been an area of interest in theoretical as well as empirical economics . research around the world .There are several factors that effect the prices of goods that are included as a part of the ‘ basket of goods’ that is used to determine the CPI. These goods mainly include the pearson online essay scoring, items that are used everyday by a consumer. These include bothf ood and non food items such as wheat, rice, clothing, shelter, fuels, and other goods and fun high, services that consumers. Central bank , Consumer price index , Currency 887 Words | 3 Pages.